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BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 946787, 24 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/946787
Review Article

Trichomonas vaginalis Cysteine Proteinases: Iron Response in Gene Expression and Proteolytic Activity

1Departamento de Infectómica y Patogénesis Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), Avenida IPN 2508, Colonia San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 México, DF, Mexico
2Departamento de Biotecnología y Bioingeniería, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), Avenida IPN 2508, Colonia San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 México, DF, Mexico

Received 15 November 2014; Accepted 9 March 2015

Academic Editor: Amogh A. Sahasrabuddhe

Copyright © 2015 Rossana Arroyo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We focus on the iron response of Trichomonas vaginalis to gene family products such as the cysteine proteinases (CPs) involved in virulence properties. In particular, we examined the effect of iron on the gene expression regulation and function of cathepsin L-like and asparaginyl endopeptidase-like CPs as virulence factors. We addressed some important aspects about CPs genomic organization and we offer possible explanations to the fact that only few members of this large gene family are expressed at the RNA and protein levels and the way to control their proteolytic activity. We also summarized all known iron regulations of CPs at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels along with new insights into the possible epigenetic and miRNA processes.