Table 2: Mean (standard deviation) scores on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule—expanded form (PANAS-X), and Adult ADHD Quality of Life Questionnaire (AAQoL) per group (control and patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) submitted to mindful awareness practices (MAP) or to no intervention) at baseline and after the intervention period (endpoint) and significant effects.

MeasureMeditation No intervention Meditation No intervention
Control Control ADHD ADHD Significant
( = 8)( = 9)( = 21)( = 22) effects
BaselineEndpointBaselineEndpointBaselineEndpointBaselineEndpoint

ASRS
 Inattention 15.5 (3.3)11.9 (3.4)10.0 (2.8)11.1 (5.1)29.4 (3.9)21.9 (5.1)27.4 (5.9)26.2 (4.9)H; S × I
 Hyperactivity-impulsivity 14.6 (4.1)11.3 (3.5)10.8 (4.4)11.9 (3.2)21.9 (7.1)17.9 (5.6)23.1 (6.9)21.9 (6.5)H; S × I
 Depression (BDI)10.0 (8.2)4.6 (2.7)4.0 (3.0)4.1 (2.0)14.0 (7.9)10.6 (9.5)12.4 (7.7)12.6 (8.2)H; S × I
 Anxiety (STAI-T)42.9 (6.2)37.1 (3.3)35.4 (3.9)34.9 (8.5)53.7 (11.7)45.5 (11.3)52.2 (11.2)51.6 (10.2)H; S × I
PANAS-X
 Negative affect2.1 (1.1)1.4 (0.2)1.5 (0.4)1.5 (0.4)2.2 (0.8)1.8 (0.7)2.3 (0.7)2.4 (0.8)H; S × I
 Positive affect2.5 (0.8)3.2 (0.9)3.0 (0.5)3.0 (0.5)2.3 (0.6)2.6 (0.7)2.7 (0.8)2.4 (0.7)H; S × I
 Fear2.0 (1.0)1.3 (0.2)1.4 (0.2)1.7 (0.6)1.9 (0.7)1.6 (0.7)2.0 (0.6)2.0 (0.6)S × I
 Hostility1.9 (0.8)2.6 (3.8)1.4 (0.4)1.4 (0.2)2.1 (0.9)1.7 (0.7)2.1 (0.8)2.1 (0.7)
 Guilt2.0 (0.9)2.6 (3.8)1.5 (0.4)1.7 (0.7)2.0 (0.9)1.5 (0.5)2.0 (0.9)2.2 (1.0)
 Sadness2.0 (0.7)1.3 (0.3)1.4 (0.4)1.6 (0.8)2.2 (1.1)1.8 (1.1)2.1 (1.0)2.4 (2.1)H; S × I
 Joviality2.7 (0.9)3.3 (1.1)3.0 (0.6)2.7 (0.5)2.2 (0.6)2.5 (0.9)2.5 (0.8)2.2 (0.7)H; S × I
 Self-assurance2.1 (0.6)2.7 (0.9)3.3 (1.2)3.2 (1.2)2.0 (0.5)2.7 (1.0)2.5 (0.9)2.4 (0.7)H; S × I
 Attentiveness3.1 (0.8)3.3 (0.7)3.3 (0.7)3.4 (0.5)2.2 (0.7)2.8 (0.7)2.5 (0.9)2.4 (0.8)H; S × I
 Shyness2.2 (1.0)1.4 (0.4)1.9 (0.6)1.7 (0.4)2.0 (0.8)1.3 (0.4)2.1 (0.8)2.0 (0.8)S × I
 Fatigue2.6 (1.3)2.0 (0.5)2.1 (0.8)2.0 (0.7)2.9 (0.7)2.3 (1.0)2.5 (0.7)2.6 (0.9)H; S × I
 Serenity2.7 (0.6)3.2 (0.6)2.9 (0.6)3.0 (0.7)2.2 (0.6)2.7 (0.7)2.4 (0.7)2.3 (0.5)H; S × I
 Surprise1.6 (0.7)1.6 (0.7)1.7 (0.8)1.5 (0.5)1.5 (0.6)1.7 (0.8)1.9 (0.9)1.7 (0.6)
AAQoL
 Life productivity64.5 (15.5)77.8 (10.2)63.4 (21.2)61.3 (19.6)34.4 (13.2)57.1 (10.4)38.4 (20.4)43.3 (17.0)H; S × I
 Psychological health60.9 (16.4)65.3 (13.1)64.4 (17.2)58.3 (17.9)39.5 (15.1)57.7 (17.5)39.4 (19.1)42.2 (16.2)H; S × I
 Life outlook56.3 (12.2)76.4 (13.0)66.0 (9.7)67.5 (10.2)48.2 (16.1)60.4 (16.4)45.9 (16.9)43.2 (15.5)H; S × I
 Relationships63.1 (20.2)71.3 (14.3)70.0 (16.4)65.6 (18.1)43.1 (15.9)60.7 (13.2)43.4 (18.9)44.1 (15.0)H; S × I
 Total quality of life 61.2 (12.5)72.7 (9.3)66.0 (14.3)63.2 (12.5)41.3 (11.8)59.0 (12.1)41.8 (14.1)43.2 (11.9)H; S × I

H: effect of health status (ADHD versus controls); S: effect of session (baseline versus endpoint) or practice effect; I: effect of intervention (MAP versus no intervention); ×: interaction of factors ( values < 0.05). See text for details on the statistical analysis.