BioMed Research International / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Following “the Roots” of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): The Evolution of an Enhancer from a Traditional Use to Increase Work and Productivity in Southeast Asia to a Recreational Psychoactive Drug in Western Countries

Table 1

Report of adverse/toxicological effects of kratom.

Short time use effectsNausea, constipation, sleep problems, temporary erectile dysfunction, itching, or sweating

Long time use effectsAnorexia, dry mouth, problems in diuresis, darker skin, and hair loss

Withdrawal symptomsHostility, aggression, aching of muscles and bones, jerky movements of the limbs, anorexia and weight loss, and insomnia

Infrequent effectsSeizures (individuals using high doses of kratom, either alone or combined with other drugs), intrahepatic cholestasis, psychotic symptoms, Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome, and hypothyroidism

Fatalities Kratom mixed with other substances:
over-the-counter cold medications and benzodiazepines;
venlafaxine, diphenhydramine, and mirtazapine;
zopiclone, citalopram, and lamotrigine

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