Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 982072, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/982072
Research Article

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Comorbidities, Substance Use, and Social Outcomes among Men and Women in a Canadian Sample

1Population and Community Health Unit, Department of Family Medicine, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, Canada N6A 5C1
2Department of Sociology, Centre for Criminology and Sociological Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 2J4
3Department of Psychology, York University, LaMarsh Centre for Child and Youth Research, Toronto, ON, Canada M3J 1P3
4Complex Mental Illness, Forensic Service, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 2S1
5Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 2S1
6Department of Sociology, Collaborative Program in Addiction Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 2J4

Received 12 August 2014; Accepted 26 November 2014

Academic Editor: Sahoo Saddichha

Copyright © 2015 Evelyn Vingilis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. R. Searight, J. M. Burke, and F. Rottnek, “Adult ADHD: evaluation and treatment in family medicine,” American Family Physician, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 2077–2086, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Okie, “ADHD in adults,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 354, no. 25, pp. 2637–2641, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Weiss and L. Hechtman, Hyperactive Children Grown Up: ADHD in Children, Adolescents, and Adults, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 1993.
  4. R. A. Barkley, K. Murphy, and D. Kwasnik, “Psychological adjustment and adaptive impairments in young adults with ADHD,” Journal of Attention Disorders, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 41–54, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Biederman, M. C. Monuteaux, E. Mick et al., “Young adult outcome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a controlled 10-year follow-up study,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 167–179, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. V. Faraone and J. Biederman, “What is the prevalence of adult ADHD? Results of a population screen of 966 adults,” Journal of Attention Disorders, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 384–391, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Young, “ADHD children grown up: an empirical review,” Counselling Psychology Quarterly, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 191–200, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. G. Fischer, C. H. D. Bau, E. H. Grevet et al., “The role of comorbid major depressive disorder in the clinical presentation of adult ADHD,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 991–996, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. Simon, P. Czobor, S. Bálint, Á. Mészáros, and I. Bitter, “Prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 194, no. 3, pp. 204–211, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Gershon, “A meta-analytic review of gender differences in ADHD,” Journal of Attention Disorders, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 143–154, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. E. Cunningham and M. H. Boyle, “Preschoolers at risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder: family, parenting, and behavioral correlates,” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 555–569, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. J. Rucklidge, “Gender differences in ADHD: implications for psychosocial treatments,” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 643–655, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. S. Rowland, C. A. Lesesne, and A. J. Abramowitz, “The epidemiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a public health view,” Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 162–170, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Fayyad, R. de Graaf, R. Kessler et al., “Cross-national prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 190, pp. 402–409, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Angola, E. J. Costello, and A. Erkanli, “Comorbidity,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 57–87, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. C. Kessler, L. Adler, R. Berkley et al., “The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 163, no. 4, pp. 716–723, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Fischer, R. A. Barkley, L. Smallish, and K. Fletcher, “Young adult foliow-up of hyperactive children: self-reported psychiatric disorders, comorbidity, and the role of childhood conduct problems and teen CD,” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 463–475, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. S. Lee, K. L. Humphreys, K. Flory, R. Liu, and K. Glass, “Prospective association of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use and abuse/dependence: a meta-analytic review,” Clinical Psychology Review, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 328–341, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Mannuzza, R. G. Klein, A. Bessler, P. Malloy, and M. E. Hynes, “Educational and occupational outcome of hyperactive boys grown up,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 1222–1227, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. G. Kaplan and D. G. Cornell, “Psychopathy and ADHD in adolescent male offenders,” Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, vol. 2, pp. 148–160, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  21. A. Ialomiteanu and E. M. Adlaf, CAMH Monitor 2011: Metadata User's Guide, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada, 2012, http://www.camh.net/Research/camh_monitor.html.
  22. R. C. Kessler, L. Adler, M. Ames et al., “The World Health Organization adult ADHD self-report scale (ASRS): a short screening scale for use in the general population,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 245–256, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. L. Able, J. A. Johnston, L. A. Adler, and R. W. Swindle, “Functional and psychosocial impairment in adults with undiagnosed ADHD,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 97–107, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. A. Adler, T. Spencer, S. V. Faraone et al., “Validity of pilot adult ADHD self-report scale (ASRS) to rate adult ADHD symptoms,” Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 145–148, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. C. Kessler, L. A. Adler, M. J. Gruber, C. A. Sarawate, T. Spencer, and D. L. Van Brunt, “Validity of the World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener in a representative sample og health plan members,” International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 52–65, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Paglia-Boak, R. E. Mann, E. M. Adlaf et al., Detailed OSDUHS Findings. The Mental Health and Well-Being of Ontario Students 1991–2011, CAMH Research Document Series no. 33, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada, 2012.
  27. S. Donath, “The validity of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire in Australia: a comparison between three scoring methods,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 231–235, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. P. Goldberg and V. F. Hillier, “A scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 139–145, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. E. Hardy, D. A. Shapiro, C. E. Haynes, and J. E. Rick, “Validation of the General Health Questionnaire-12 using a sample of employees from England's health care services,” Psychological Assessment, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 159–165, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. V. Sheehan, Y. Lecrubier, K. H. Sheehan et al., “The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 59, no. 20, pp. 22–33, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. A. L. Newcombe, R. E. Humeniuk, and R. Ali, “Validation of the world health organization alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST): report of results from the Australian site,” Drug and Alcohol Review, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 217–226, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. B. Saunders, O. G. Aasland, T. F. Babor, J. R. de la Fuente, and M. Grant, “Development of the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT): WHO collaborative project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption II,” Addiction, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 791–804, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. WHO ASSIST Working Group, “The Alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST): development, reliability and feasibility,” Addiction, vol. 97, no. 9, pp. 1183–1194, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Ialomiteanu, E. M. Adlaf, H. Hamilton, and R. E. Mann, “CAMH Monitor eReport: addiction and mental health indicators among Ontario adults 1977–2011,” CAMH Research Document Series No. 35, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  35. M. Kirst, G. Mecredy, and M. Chaiton, “The prevalence of tobacco use co-morbidities in Canada,” Canadian Journal of Public Health, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. e210–e215, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. E. Mann, G. Stoduto, E. Vingilis et al., “Alcohol and driving factors in collision risk,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1538–1544, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. D. Weiss and J. R. Weiss, “A guide to the treatment of adults with ADHD,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 27–37, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Murphy and R. A. Barkley, “Prevalence of DSM-IV symptoms of ADHD in adult licensed drivers: implications for clinical diagnosis,” Journal of Attention Disorders, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 147–161, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Biederman, S. V. Faraone, M. C. Monuteaux, M. Bober, and E. Cadogen, “Gender effects on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults, revisited,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 692–700, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. Gambino, “The correction for bias in prevalence estimation with screening tests,” Journal of Gambling Studies, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 343–351, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus