Figure 6: p,p-DDE induces PKCα and p38 activation through PLA2 and oxidative stress. (a) Western blot and densitometric analysis of PKCα phosphorylation after 1 h of exposure to 0.019, 0.19, or 1.9 μg/mL of p,p-DDE. (b) PKCα and (c) p38 phosphorylation in HL-60 cells exposed for 1 h to 1.9 μg/mL of p,p-DDE in cultures pretreated with the compounds indicated below each bar: BAPTA-AM (intracellular calcium chelator), PLA2 inhibitor (iPLA2), PKC inhibitor (iPKC), or Trolox (antioxidant). Data is presented as the mean ± SEM from three independent experiments. and indicate differences relative to basal levels; , , and indicate differences relative to cells exposed to 1.9 μg/mL of p,p-DDE. Data were analysed using a one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post hoc test.