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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 1575130, 8 pages
Review Article

Obstructive Form of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy-Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Gradient: Novel Methods of Provocation, Monitoring of Biomarkers, and Recent Advances in the Treatment

2nd Department of Cardiology, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum, Kopernika Street 17, 31-501 Cracow, Poland

Received 25 November 2015; Revised 17 March 2016; Accepted 6 April 2016

Academic Editor: Giovanni Di Salvo

Copyright © 2016 Pawel Petkow Dimitrow and Renata Rajtar-Salwa. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Dynamic (latent or/and labile) obstruction of left ventricular outflow (LVOT) was recognized from the earliest clinical descriptions of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and has proved to be a complex phenomenon, as well as arguably the most audible (“visible”) pathophysiological hallmark of this heterogeneous disease. The aim of the current review is focused on two novel issues in a subgroup of obstructive HCM. Firstly, the important methodological problem in HCM is the examination of a subgroup of patients with nonobstructive hypertrophy in resting conditions and hard, but possible provoking obstruction. Recently, investigators have proposed physiological stress test (with double combined stimuli) to disclose such type of patients. The upright exercise is described in the ESC guideline on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from 2014 and may appear as a candidate for gold standard provocation test. The second novel area of interest is associated with elevated level of signaling biomarkers: hypercoagulation, hemolysis, acquired von Willebrand 2A disease, and enhanced oxidative stress. The accelerated and turbulent flow within narrow LVOT may be responsible for these biochemical disturbances. The most recent advances in the treatment of obstructive HCM are related to nonpharmacological methods of LVOT gradient reduction. This report extensively discusses novel methods.