Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 1679734, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1679734
Research Article

An Experimental Study of Briquetting Process of Torrefied Rubber Seed Kernel and Palm Oil Shell

1School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
2Science and Engineering Research Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
3School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

Received 25 November 2015; Revised 14 April 2016; Accepted 22 May 2016

Academic Editor: Mads B. Pedersen

Copyright © 2016 M. Fadzli Hamid et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Y. Li, X. Li, F. Shen et al., “Responses of biomass briquetting and pelleting to water-involved pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 151, pp. 54–62, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. J. C. van der Stelt, H. Gerhauser, J. H. A. Kiel, and K. J. Ptasinski, “Biomass upgrading by torrefaction for the production of biofuels: a review,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 3748–3762, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Z. Husain, Z. Zainac, and Z. Abdullah, “Briquetting of palm fibre and shell from the processing of palm nuts to palm oil,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 505–509, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. S. Tumuluru, C. T. Wright, J. R. Hess, and K. L. Kenney, “A review of biomass densification systems to develop uniform feedstock commodities for bioenergy application,” Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 683–707, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. S. Tumuluru, J. R. Hess, R. D. Boardman, C. T. Wright, and T. L. Westover, “Formulation, pretreatment, and densification options to improve biomass specifications for Co-firing high percentages with coal,” Industrial Biotechnology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 113–132, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Mani, S. Sokhansanj, X. Bi, and A. Turhollow, “Economics of producing fuel pellets from biomass,” Applied Engineering in Agriculture, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 421–426, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. X. Zhang, D. Xu, Z. Xu, and Q. Cheng, “The effect of different treatment conditions on biomass binder preparation for lignite briquette,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 185–196, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. C. Bergman, R. Boersma, R. W. R. Zwart, and J. H. Kiel, “Torrefaction for biomass co-firing in existing coal-fired power stations,” Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN ECNC05013, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  9. L. G. Tabil and S. Sokhansanj, “Compression and compaction behavior of alfalfa grind: part 2: compaction behavior,” Powder Handling and Processing, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 117–122, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. G. Tabil Jr., Binding and pelleting characteristics of alfalfa [Ph.D. thesis], Department of Agricultural and Bio resource Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada, 1996.
  11. S. Mani, L. G. Tabil, and S. Sokhansanj, “Compaction characteristics of some biomass grinds,” in Proceedings of the AIC Meeting, CSAE/SCGR Program, pp. 14–17, Saskatoon, Canada.
  12. F. F. Felfli, J. M. Mesa P, J. D. Rocha, D. Filippetto, C. A. Luengo, and W. A. Pippo, “Biomass briquetting and its perspectives in Brazil,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 236–242, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. O. A. Kuti, “Performance of composite sawdust briquette fuel in a biomass stove under simulated condition,” Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 284–288, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  14. M. Erol, H. Haykiri-Acma, and S. Küçükbayrak, “Calorific value estimation of biomass from their proximate analyses data,” Renewable Energy, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 170–173, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. K. Tripathi, P. V. R. Iyer, and T. C. Kandpal, “A techno-economic evaluation of biomass briquetting in India,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 14, no. 5-6, pp. 479–488, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Mani, L. G. Tabil, and S. Sokhansanj, “Evaluation of compaction equations applied to four biomass species,” Canadian Biosystems Engineering, vol. 46, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. V. S. Sastry and D. W. Fuerstenau, “Mechanisms of agglomerate growth in green pelletization,” Powder Technology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 97–105, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. W. B. Pietsch, “Size enlargement methods and equipments—part 2: agglomerate bonding and strength,” in Handbook of Powder Science and Technology, M. E. Fayed and L. Otten, Eds., pp. 231–252, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, USA, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  19. W. Liao, Y. Liu, C. Frear, and S. Chen, “A new approach of pellet formation of a filamentous fungus—Rhizopus oryzae,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 98, no. 18, pp. 3415–3423, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. M. Amerah, “Interactions between wheat characteristics and feed enzyme supplementation in broiler diets,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 199, pp. 1–9, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. I. C. M. Dea, “Industrial polysaccharides,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 1315–1322, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  22. R. Paper, O. F. Obi, B. S. Adeboye, N. N. Aneke, and E. Oke, “Biomass briquetting and rural development in Nigeria,” International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1043–1052, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  23. R. P. Ellis, M. P. Cochrane, M. F. B. Dale et al., “Starch production and industrial use,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 289–311, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  24. J. N. BeMiller and K. C. Huber, “Physical modification of food starch functionalities,” Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 19–69, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. M. S. Alam, J. Kaur, H. Khaira, and K. Gupta, “Extrusion and extruded products: changes in quality attributes as affected by extrusion process parameters: a review,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 445–475, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar