Figure 3: Roles of OPG and TRAIL in atherosclerosis and CVD. In the upper part of the image, summary of the main experimental data supporting OPG and TRAIL involvement in atherosclerosis. In the lower part of the image, summary of the main clinical data showing OPG and TRAIL associations with CVD. In the middle, representative image of an aortic atherosclerotic plaque stained by hematoxylin and eosin (10x original magnification). ACS is acute coronary syndromes; AMI is acute myocardial infarction, and ARBs are angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers; CAD is coronary artery disease; CKD is chronic kidney disease; CRP is C-reactive protein; DM is diabetes mellitus; OPG is osteoprotegerin; RAS is renin-angiotensin system; TRAIL is TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand; VSMC is vascular smooth muscle cell.