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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 1794329, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1794329
Research Article

aCGH Analysis to Estimate Genetic Variations among Domesticated Chickens

1Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan
2Department of Biology, Ochanomizu University, Tokyo 112-0012, Japan
3Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, Nagahama, Shiga 526-0829, Japan

Received 11 April 2016; Accepted 20 June 2016

Academic Editor: Yi-Ping Liu

Copyright © 2016 Tomoyoshi Komiyama et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Chickens have been familiar to humans since ancient times and have been used not only for culinary purposes but also for cultural purposes including ritual ceremonies and traditional entertainment. The various chicken breeds developed for these purposes often display distinct morphological and/or behavioural traits. For example, the Japanese Shamo is larger and more aggressive than other domesticated chickens, reflecting its role as a fighting cock breed, whereas Japanese Naganakidori breeds, which have long-crowing behaviour, were bred instead for their entertaining and aesthetic qualities. However, the genetic backgrounds of these distinct morphological and behavioural traits remain unclear. Therefore, the question arises as to which genomic regions in these chickens were acted upon by selective pressures through breeding. We compared the entire genomes of six chicken breeds domesticated for various cultural purposes by utilizing array comparative genomic hybridization. From these analyses, we identified 782 regions that underwent insertions, deletions, or mutations, representing man-made selection pressure in these chickens. Furthermore, we found that a number of genes diversified in domesticated chickens bred for cultural or entertainment purposes were different from those diversified in chickens bred for food, such as broilers and layers.