Table 4: Human interventional studies.

ReferenceStudy designStudy populationStatus of therapyType of exerciseDurationFrequencyParametersLOELevel of recommendation

Mustian et al., 2015 [49]479RCT84% breast cancer
94% female
During chemotherapyHome based walking and resistance band training 6 weeksFACT-Cog (↑)
Inflammatory markers (↓)
Anti-inflammatory markers (↑)

Derry et al., 2015 [50]200
100 IG
100 CG
RCTBreast cancerAfter chemotherapy, during hormone therapyHatha Yoga12 weeks2x/week
90 min
Self-reported cognitive function (BCPT) (→ after intervention, ↑ after 3-month follow-up) and inflammation (→ after intervention, ↑ after 3-month follow-up)1bA

Janelsins et al., 2012 [51]358RCT75% breast cancer
96% female
2–24 months after different adjuvant therapiesBreathing exercise, Yoga, and meditation 4 weeks2x/week
75 min
Difficulty in remembering things (Modified MD Anderson Symptom Inventory ↑)1bA

Miki et al., 2014 [52]78
38 IG
40 CG
RCTBreast cancer, age of participants > 65 yearsTherapy for cancer with varying treatmentsSpeed-feedback therapy on a bicycle ergometer4 weeks1x/week
5 min
Frontal assessment battery (↑)2bB

Oh et al., 2012 [53]81
37 IG
44 CG
RCTBreast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal carcinoma, and stomach cancerDuring and after chemotherapyMedical Qigong10 weeks2x/week
90 min
Self-reported cognitive function: EORTC QLQ-C30 (↑), FACT-Cog (↑), and CRP (↑)2bB

Rogers et al., 2009 [54]41
21 IG
20 CG
RCTBreast cancer>3 months after chemotherapy, during hormone therapyPhysical activity behavior change program12 weeksFACT-Cog (→)2bB

Baumann et al., 2011 [55]17
9 IG
8 CG
Controlled trialBreast cancerDuring chemotherapyStrength training12 weeks2x/week
60 min
Neuropsychological tests: verbal memory MEMO (↑), working memory WIT (→), and attention d2-test (↑)4C

Knobf et al., 2014 [56]26Uncontrolled trialBreast cancer<36 months after chemotherapyProgressive aerobic endurance training on a treadmill (60–75% Hfmax)6 months3x/week
10–45 min
BCPT (↓ forgetfulness, → concentration)4C

Reid-Arndt et al., 2012 [57]23Uncontrolled trialBreast cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia>12 months after chemotherapyTai chi10 weeks2x/week
60 min
Neuropsychological tests: memory (↑ for some patients), executive function (→), speech (→), and attention (↑ for some patients)
Subjective problems: multiple abilities self-reported questionnaire (↑ verbal memory, visual memory)

Galantino et al., 2012 [58]4Case seriesBreast cancerBefore, during, and after chemotherapyIyengar Yoga12 weeks1-2x/week
70 min
Perceived cognition questionnaire (↑/→/↑/→), CogState (↑ speed, ↓/→ accuracy, ↑ errors)4C

IG: intervention group; CG: control group; BCPT: Breast Cancer Prevention Trial; EORTC QLQ-C30: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire; FACT-Cog: Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function; CRP: C-Reactive Protein; WIT: Wilde Intelligence Subtest.