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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 2150763, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2150763
Review Article

MicroRNAs in Coronary Heart Disease: Ready to Enter the Clinical Arena?

1Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Corso della Repubblica 79, 04100 Latina, Italy
2Department of AngioCardioNeurology, IRCCS NeuroMed, 86077 Pozzilli, Italy

Received 11 August 2016; Accepted 25 September 2016

Academic Editor: Ling-Qing Yuan

Copyright © 2016 Elena Cavarretta and Giacomo Frati. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its complication remain the leading cause of mortality in industrialized countries despite great advances in terms of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment options. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, act as posttranscriptional gene expression modulators and have been implicated as key regulators in several physiological and pathological processes linked to CAD. Circulating miRNAs have been evaluated as promising novel biomarkers of CAD, acute coronary syndromes, and acute myocardial infarction, with prognostic implications. Several challenges related to technical aspects, miRNAs normalization, drugs interaction, and quality reporting of statistical multivariable analysis of the miRNAs observational studies remain unresolved. MicroRNA-based therapies in cardiovascular diseases are not ready yet for human trials but definitely appealing. Through this review we will provide clinicians with a concise overview of the pros and cons of microRNAs.