Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 2150763, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2150763
Review Article

MicroRNAs in Coronary Heart Disease: Ready to Enter the Clinical Arena?

1Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Corso della Repubblica 79, 04100 Latina, Italy
2Department of AngioCardioNeurology, IRCCS NeuroMed, 86077 Pozzilli, Italy

Received 11 August 2016; Accepted 25 September 2016

Academic Editor: Ling-Qing Yuan

Copyright © 2016 Elena Cavarretta and Giacomo Frati. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Mozaffarian, E. J. Benjamin, A. S. Go et al., “American heart association statistics committee; Stroke statistics subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics-2016 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 133, no. 4, pp. e38–e60, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. J. D. Berry, A. Dyer, X. Cai et al., “Lifetime risks of cardiovascular disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, no. 4, pp. 321–329, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Zdravkovic, A. Wienke, N. L. Pedersen, M. E. Marenberg, A. I. Yashin, and U. De Faire, “Heritability of death from coronary heart disease: a 36-year follow-up of 20 966 Swedish twins,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 252, no. 3, pp. 247–254, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. V. Rivera, R. Carreras-Torres, R. Roncarati et al., “Assessment of the 9p21.3 locus in severity of coronary artery disease in the presence and absence of type 2 diabetes,” BMC Medical Genetics, vol. 14, no. 1, article 11, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. McPherson and A. Tybjaerg-Hansen, “Genetics of coronary artery disease,” Circulation Research, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 564–578, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Busch, S. M. Eken, and L. Maegdefessel, “Prospective and therapeutic screening value of non-coding RNA as biomarkers in cardiovascular disease,” Annals of Translational Medicine, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 236–236, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. R. C. Lee, R. L. Feinbaum, and V. Ambros, “The C. elegans heterochronic gene lin-4 encodes small RNAs with antisense complementarity to lin-14,” Cell, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 843–854, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. P. Bartel, “MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function,” Cell, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 281–297, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. J. Reinhart, F. J. Slack, M. Basson et al., “The 21-nucleotide let-7 RNA regulates developmental timing in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nature, vol. 403, no. 6772, pp. 901–906, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Kozomara and S. Griffiths-Jones, “MiRBase: annotating high confidence microRNAs using deep sequencing data,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. D68–D73, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Condorelli, M. V. G. Latronico, and E. Cavarretta, “MicroRNAs in cardiovascular diseases: current knowledge and the road ahead,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 63, no. 21, pp. 2177–2187, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. A. Meijer, E. M. Smith, and M. Bushell, “Regulation of miRNA strand selection: follow the leader?” Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 1135–1140, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Ha and V. N. Kim, “Regulation of microRNA biogenesis,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 509–524, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. A. Boon and K. C. Vickers, “Intercellular transport of MicroRNAs,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 186–192, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Zhu and G. C. Fan, “Extracellular/circulating microRNAs and their potential role in cardiovascular disease,” American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 138–149, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  16. P. S. Mitchell, R. K. Parkin, E. M. Kroh et al., “Circulating microRNAs as stable blood-based markers for cancer detection,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 30, pp. 10513–10518, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. Kosaka, H. Izumi, K. Sekine, and T. Ochiya, “MicroRNA as a new immune-regulatory agent in breast milk,” Silence, vol. 1, no. 1, article 7, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. A. Weber, D. H. Baxter, S. Zhang et al., “The microRNA spectrum in 12 body fluids,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 1733–1741, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Turchinovich, L. Weiz, A. Langheinz, and B. Burwinkel, “Characterization of extracellular circulating microRNA,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 39, no. 16, pp. 7223–7233, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. N. B. Y. Tsui, E. K. O. Ng, and Y. M. D. Lo, “Stability of endogenous and added RNA in blood specimens, serum, and plasma,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1647–1653, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Ai, R. Zhang, Y. Li et al., “Circulating microRNA-1 as a potential novel biomarker for acute myocardial infarction,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 391, no. 1, pp. 73–77, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. D'Alessandra, P. Devanna, F. Limana et al., “Circulating microRNAs are new and sensitive biomarkers of myocardial infarction,” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, no. 22, pp. 2765–2773, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. F. Corsten, R. Dennert, S. Jochems et al., “Circulating MicroRNA-208b and MicroRNA-499 reflect myocardial damage in cardiovascular disease,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 499–506, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. Adachi, M. Nakanishi, Y. Otsuka et al., “Plasma microRNA 499 as a biomarker of acute myocardial infarction,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 1183–1185, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G.-K. Wang, J.-Q. Zhu, J.-T. Zhang et al., “Circulating microRNA: a novel potential biomarker for early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in humans,” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 659–666, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. P. R. Romaine, M. Tomaszewski, G. Condorelli, and N. J. Samani, “MicroRNAs in cardiovascular disease: an introduction for clinicians,” Heart, vol. 101, no. 12, pp. 921–928, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Cheng, Q. Wang, W. You, M. Chen, and J. Xia, “MiRNAs as biomarkers of myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 2, Article ID e88566, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Navickas, D. Gal, A. Laucevičius, A. Taparauskaitė, M. Zdanytė, and P. Holvoet, “Identifying circulating microRNAs as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 322–337, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. Y. Devaux, M. Mueller, P. Haaf et al., “Diagnostic and prognostic value of circulating microRNAs in patients with acute chest pain,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 277, no. 2, pp. 260–271, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. F. He, P. Lv, X. Zhao et al., “Predictive value of circulating miR-328 and miR-134 for acute myocardial infarction,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 394, no. 1-2, pp. 137–144, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. Widera, S. K. Gupta, J. M. Lorenzen et al., “Diagnostic and prognostic impact of six circulating microRNAs in acute coronary syndrome,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 872–875, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Matsumoto, Y. Sakata, D. Nakatani et al., “A subset of circulating microRNAs are predictive for cardiac death after discharge for acute myocardial infarction,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 427, no. 2, pp. 280–284, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. O. Gidlöf, J. G. Smith, K. Miyazu et al., “Circulating cardio-enriched microRNAs are associated with long-term prognosis following myocardial infarction,” BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, vol. 13, article 12, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Karakas, C. Schulte, S. Appelbaum et al., “Circulating microRNAs strongly predict cardiovascular death in patients with coronary artery disease—results from the large AtheroGene study,” European Heart Journal, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. E. Goretti, M. Vausort, D. R. Wagner, and Y. Devaux, “Association between circulating microRNAs, cardiovascular risk factors and outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 168, no. 4, pp. 4548–4550, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Matsumoto, Y. Sakata, S. Suna et al., “Circulating p53-responsive MicroRNAs are predictive indicators of heart failure after acute myocardial infarction,” Circulation Research, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 322–326, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. Thygesen, J. S. Alpert, A. S. Jaffe, M. L. Simoons, B. R. Chaitman, and H. D. White, “Writing Group on behalf of the Joint ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF Task Force for the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction. Third universal definition of myocardial infarction,” Circulation, vol. 126, pp. 2020–2035, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. M. I. F. J. Oerlemans, A. Mosterd, M. S. Dekker et al., “Early assessment of acute coronary syndromes in the emergency department: the potential diagnostic value of circulating microRNAs,” EMBO Molecular Medicine, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1176–1185, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Roffi, C. Patrono, J. P. Collet et al., “Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients Presenting without Persistent ST-Segment Elevation of the European Society of Cardiology. 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation: Task Force for the Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients Presenting without Persistent ST-Segment Elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC),” European Heart Journal, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 267–315, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  40. Y. D'Alessandra, M. C. Carena, L. Spazzafumo et al., “Diagnostic potential of plasmatic microRNA signatures in stable and unstable angina,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 11, Article ID e80345, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Fichtlscherer, S. De Rosa, H. Fox et al., “Circulating microRNAs in patients with coronary artery disease,” Circulation Research, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 677–684, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. W. Gao, H.-W. He, Z.-M. Wang et al., “Plasma levels of lipometabolism-related miR-122 and miR-370 are increased in patients with hyperlipidemia and associated with coronary artery disease,” Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 11, article 55, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Zampetaki, P. Willeit, L. Tilling et al., “Prospective study on circulating microRNAs and risk of myocardial infarction,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 290–299, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. F. Jansen, X. Yang, S. Proebsting et al., “MicroRNA expression in circulating microvesicles predicts cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease,” Journal of the American Heart Association, vol. 3, no. 6, article e001249, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. E. K. Economou, E. Oikonomou, G. Siasos et al., “The role of microRNAs in coronary artery disease: from pathophysiology to diagnosis and treatment,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 241, no. 2, pp. 624–633, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. H. Schwarzenbach, A. M. da Silva, G. Calin, and K. Pantel, “Data normalization strategies for microRNA quantification,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 1333–1342, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. Wang, Y. Pei, Y. Zhong, S. Jiang, J. Shao, and J. Gong, “Altered serum microRNAs as novel diagnostic biomarkers for atypical coronary artery disease,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 9, Article ID e107012, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J.-N. Boeckel, C. E. Thomé, D. Leistner, A. M. Zeiher, S. Fichtlscherer, and S. Dimmeler, “Heparin selectively affects the quantification of micrornas in human blood samples,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 1125–1127, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. H. C. de Boer, C. van Solingen, J. Prins et al., “Aspirin treatment hampers the use of plasma microRNA-126 as a biomarker for the progression of vascular disease,” European Heart Journal, vol. 34, no. 44, pp. 3451–3457, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. E. Cavarretta, G. A. Chiariello, and G. Condorelli, “Platelets, endothelium, and circulating microRNA-126 as a prognostic biomarker in cardiovascular diseases: per aspirin ad astra,” European Heart Journal, vol. 34, no. 44, pp. 3400–3402, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D. Kaudewitz, A. Zampetaki, and M. Mayr, “MicroRNA biomarkers for coronary artery disease?” Current Atherosclerosis Reports, vol. 17, no. 12, article 70, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D.-J. Kim, S. Linnstaedt, J. Palma et al., “Plasma components affect accuracy of circulating cancer-related microRNA quantitation,” Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 71–80, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. Tiberio, M. Callari, V. Angeloni, M. G. Daidone, and V. Appierto, “Challenges in using circulating miRNAs as cancer biomarkers,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, Article ID 731479, 10 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. Kumarswamy and T. Thum, “Non-coding RNAs in cardiac remodeling and heart failure,” Circulation Research, vol. 113, no. 6, pp. 676–689, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. Real, C. Forné, A. Roso-Llorach, and J. M. Martínez-Sánchez, “Quality reporting of multivariable regression models in observational studies,” Medicine, vol. 95, no. 20, article e3653, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. K. J. Rayner, C. C. Esau, F. N. Hussain et al., “Inhibition of miR-33a/b in non-human primates raises plasma HDL and lowers VLDL triglycerides,” Nature, vol. 478, no. 7369, pp. 404–407, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. R. Hinkel, D. Penzkofer, S. Zühlke et al., “Inhibition of microRNA-92a protects against ischemia/reperfusion injury in a large-animal model,” Circulation, vol. 128, no. 10, pp. 1066–1075, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. T. Thum, C. Gross, J. Fiedler et al., “MicroRNA-21 contributes to myocardial disease by stimulating MAP kinase signalling in fibroblasts,” Nature, vol. 456, no. 7224, pp. 980–984, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Lotrionte, E. Cavarretta, A. Abbate et al., “Temporal changes in standard and tissue doppler imaging echocardiographic parameters after anthracycline chemotherapy in women with breast cancer,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 112, no. 7, pp. 1005–1012, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. E. Cavarretta and G. Condorelli, “miR-21 and cardiac fibrosis: another brick in the wall?” European Heart Journal, vol. 36, no. 32, pp. 2139–2141, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. E. Cavarretta, M. V. G. Latronico, and G. Condorelli, “Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and microRNA-21: the game is on again,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 165–166, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. H. L. A. Janssen, H. W. Reesink, E. J. Lawitz et al., “Treatment of HCV infection by targeting microRNA,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 368, no. 18, pp. 1685–1694, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. H. van der Ree, A. J. van der Meer, J. de Bruijne et al., “Long-term safety and efficacy of microRNA-targeted therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients,” Antiviral Research, vol. 111, pp. 53–59, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Y.-M. Dong, X.-X. Liu, G.-Q. Wei, Y.-N. Da, L. Cha, and C.-S. Ma, “Prediction of long-term outcome after acute myocardial infarction using circulating miR-145,” Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 85–91, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. P. Pilbrowa, L. Cordeddu, V. A. Cameron et al., “Circulating miR-323-3p and miR-652: candidate markers for the presence and progression of acute coronary syndromes,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 176, no. 2, pp. 375–385, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. I. Eitel, V. Adams, P. Dieterich et al., “Relation of circulating MicroRNA-133a concentrations with myocardial damage and clinical prognosis in ST-elevation myocardial infarction,” American Heart Journal, vol. 164, no. 5, pp. 706–714, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus