Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 2389895, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2389895
Review Article

Polydopamine-Assisted Surface Modification for Bone Biosubstitutes

1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China
2Centre for Human Tissues and Organs Degeneration and Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Biomedical Materials, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055, China
3Fiber and Biopolymer Research Institute, Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA

Received 5 May 2016; Revised 7 July 2016; Accepted 11 July 2016

Academic Editor: Costantino Del Gaudio

Copyright © 2016 Shishu Huang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Langer and J. P. Vacanti, “Tissue engineering,” Science, vol. 260, no. 5110, pp. 920–926, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Williams, “Benefit and risk in tissue engineering,” Materials Today, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 24–29, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. F. Williams, The Williams Dictionary of Biomaterials, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, UK, 1999.
  4. L. J. Burchill and H. J. Ross, “Heart transplantation in adults with end-stage congenital heart disease,” Future Cardiology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 329–342, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. E. Molzahn, R. Starzomski, and J. McCormick, “The supply of organs for transplantation: issues and challenges,” Nephrology Nursing Journal, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 17–28, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. Macchiarini, P. Jungebluth, T. Go et al., “Clinical transplantation of a tissue-engineered airway,” The Lancet, vol. 372, no. 9655, pp. 2023–2030, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. C. Ott, T. S. Matthiesen, S.-K. Goh et al., “Perfusion-decellularized matrix: using nature's platform to engineer a bioartificial heart,” Nature Medicine, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 213–221, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. R. A. J. Rose and R. O. C. Oreffo, “Bone tissue engineering: hope vs hype,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 292, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. L. Hench and J. M. Polak, “Third-generation biomedical materials,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5557, pp. 1014–1017, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Wang, “Developing bioactive composite materials for tissue replacement,” Biomaterials, vol. 24, no. 13, pp. 2133–2151, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. K. Jaganathan, E. Supriyanto, S. Murugesan, A. Balaji, and M. K. Asokan, “Biomaterials in cardiovascular research: applications and clinical implications,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 459465, 11 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. Velard, D. Laurent-Maquin, J. Braux et al., “The effect of zinc on hydroxyapatite-mediated activation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and bone implant-associated acute inflammation,” Biomaterials, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 2001–2009, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. M. Anderson and K. M. Miller, “Biomaterial biocompatibility and the macrophage,” Biomaterials, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 5–10, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Grandjean-Laquerriere, P. Laquerriere, E. Jallot et al., “Influence of the zinc concentration of sol-gel derived zinc substituted hydroxyapatite on cytokine production by human monocytes in vitro,” Biomaterials, vol. 27, no. 17, pp. 3195–3200, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Kaully, K. Kaufman-Francis, A. Lesman, and S. Levenberg, “Vascularization—the conduit to viable engineered tissues,” Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 159–169, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Lovett, K. Lee, A. Edwards, and D. L. Kaplan, “Vascularization strategies for tissue engineering,” Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 353–370, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Q. Ye, F. Zhou, and W. Liu, “Bioinspired catecholic chemistry for surface modification,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 4244–4258, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. E. Lynge, R. Van Der Westen, A. Postma, and B. Städler, “Polydopamine—a nature-inspired polymer coating for biomedical science,” Nanoscale, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 4916–4928, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. H. Waite and X. X. Qin, “Polyphosphoprotein from the adhesive pads of Mytilus edulis,” Biochemistry, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 2887–2893, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. V. V. Papov, T. V. Diamond, K. Biemann, and J. H. Waite, “Hydroxyarginine-containing polyphenolic proteins in the adhesive plaques of the marine mussel Mytilus edulis,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 270, no. 34, pp. 20183–20192, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. H. Ku, J. S. Lee, and C. B. Park, “Spatial control of cell adhesion and patterning through mussel-inspired surface modification by polydopamine,” Langmuir, vol. 26, no. 19, pp. 15104–15108, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. H. Ku, J. Ryu, S. K. Hong, H. Lee, and C. B. Park, “General functionalization route for cell adhesion on non-wetting surfaces,” Biomaterials, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 2535–2541, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Ryu, S. H. Ku, H. Lee, and C. B. Park, “Mussel-inspired polydopamine coating as a universal route to hydroxyapatite crystallization,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 20, no. 13, pp. 2132–2139, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. C. Rubinstein, N. Giladi, and J. M. Hausdorff, “The power of cueing to circumvent dopamine deficits: a review of physical therapy treatment of gait disturbances in Parkinson's disease,” Movement Disorders, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1148–1160, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. Di Ciano, R. N. Cardinal, R. A. Cowell, S. J. Little, and B. J. Everitt, “Differential involvement of NMDA, AMPA/kainate, and dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens core in the acquisition and performance of pavlovian approach behavior,” The Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 21, no. 23, pp. 9471–9477, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. G. Ruhé, N. S. Mason, and A. H. Schene, “Mood is indirectly related to serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine levels in humans: a meta-analysis of monoamine depletion studies,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 331–359, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. J. Diehl and S. Gershon, “The role of dopamine in mood disorders,” Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 115–120, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. A. Grace, S. B. Floresco, Y. Goto, and D. J. Lodge, “Regulation of firing of dopaminergic neurons and control of goal-directed behaviors,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 220–227, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. Lee, S. M. Dellatore, W. M. Miller, and P. B. Messersmith, “Mussel-inspired surface chemistry for multifunctional coatings,” Science, vol. 318, no. 5849, pp. 426–430, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. Meredith and T. Sarna, “The physical and chemical properties of eumelanin,” Pigment Cell Research, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 572–594, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. F. Yu, S. Chen, Y. Chen et al., “Experimental and theoretical analysis of polymerization reaction process on the polydopamine membranes and its corrosion protection properties for 304 Stainless Steel,” Journal of Molecular Structure, vol. 982, no. 1–3, pp. 152–161, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. Bernsmann, A. Ponche, C. Ringwald et al., “Characterization of dopamine−melanin growth on silicon oxide,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 113, no. 19, pp. 8234–8242, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. B. Clark Jr., J. A. Gardella Jr., T. M. Schultz, D. G. Patil, and L. Salvati Jr., “Solid-state analysis of eumelanin biopolymers by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 949–956, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. R. Dreyer, D. J. Miller, B. D. Freeman, D. R. Paul, and C. W. Bielawski, “Elucidating the structure of poly(dopamine),” Langmuir, vol. 28, no. 15, pp. 6428–6435, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. R. Dreyer, D. J. Miller, B. D. Freeman, D. R. Paul, and C. W. Bielawski, “Perspectives on poly(dopamine),” Chemical Science, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 3796–3802, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. d'Ischia, A. Napolitano, V. Ball, C.-T. Chen, and M. J. Buehler, “Polydopamine and eumelanin: from structure-property relationships to a unified tailoring strategy,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 3541–3550, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. V. Ball, D. Del Frari, V. Toniazzo, and D. Ruch, “Kinetics of polydopamine film deposition as a function of pH and dopamine concentration: insights in the polydopamine deposition mechanism,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 386, no. 1, pp. 366–372, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. Liebscher, R. Mrówczyński, H. A. Scheidt et al., “Structure of polydopamine: a never-ending story?” Langmuir, vol. 29, no. 33, pp. 10539–10548, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. B. Peterson, S. P. Le-Masurier, K. Lim, J. M. Hook, P. Martens, and A. M. Granville, “Incorporation of 5-hydroxyindazole into the self-polymerization of dopamine for novel polymer synthesis,” Macromolecular Rapid Communications, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 291–297, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Pezzella, A. Iadonisi, S. Valerio et al., “Disentangling Eumelanin ‘black chromophore’: visible absorption changes as signatures of oxidation state- and aggregation-dependent dynamic interactions in a model water-soluble 5,6-dihydroxyindole polymer,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 131, no. 42, pp. 15270–15275, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. D'Ischia, A. Napolitano, and A. Pezzella, “5,6-dihydroxyindole chemistry: unexplored opportunities beyond eumelanin,” European Journal of Organic Chemistry, no. 28, pp. 5501–5516, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. d'Ischia, A. Napolitano, A. Pezzella, P. Meredith, and T. Sarna, “Chemical and structural diversity in eumelanins: unexplored bio-optoelectronic materials,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 48, no. 22, pp. 3914–3921, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. T. Shalev, A. Gopin, M. Bauer, R. W. Stark, and S. Rahimipour, “Non-leaching antimicrobial surfaces through polydopamine bio-inspired coating of quaternary ammonium salts or an ultrashort antimicrobial lipopeptide,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 2026–2032, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. F. Bernsmann, A. Ponche, C. Ringwald et al., “Characterization of dopamine-melanin growth on silicon oxide,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 113, no. 19, pp. 8234–8242, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. N. F. Della Vecchia, R. Avolio, M. Alfè, M. E. Errico, A. Napolitano, and M. D'Ischia, “Building-block diversity in polydopamine underpins a multifunctional eumelanin-type platform tunable through a quinone control point,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1331–1340, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. O. Patil, W. T. Pennington, G. R. Desiraju, D. Y. Curtin, and I. C. Paul, “Recent studies on the formation and properties of quinhydrone complexes,” Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals, vol. 134, pp. 279–304, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  47. J. R. Scheffer, Y.-F. Wong, A. O. Patil, D. Y. Curtin, and I. C. Paul, “CPMAS 13C NMR spectra of quinones, hydroquinones, and their complexes. Use of CMR to follow a reaction in the solid state,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 107, no. 17, pp. 4898–4904, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. He, A. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and Y. Guan, “Novel redox hydrogel by in situ gelation of chitosan as a result of template oxidative polymerization of hydroquinone,” Macromolecules, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 2245–2252, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Zhang, J. He, Y. Guan, Z. Li, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Zhu, “Oxidative polymerization of hydroquinone using deoxycholic acid supramolecular template,” Science China Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 830–835, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. Mrówczyński, R. Turcu, C. Leostean, H. A. Scheidt, and J. Liebscher, “New versatile polydopamine coated functionalized magnetic nanoparticles,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 295–302, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. H. C. Terrill, Optimization of Polydopamine Coatings, Hornors Research Projects, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, USA, 2015.
  52. P. Zhou, Y. Deng, B. Lyu et al., “Rapidly-deposited polydopamine coating via high temperature and vigorous stirring: formation, characterization and biofunctional evaluation,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 11, Article ID e113087, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J.-H. Jiang, L.-P. Zhu, X.-L. Li, Y.-Y. Xu, and B.-K. Zhu, “Surface modification of PE porous membranes based on the strong adhesion of polydopamine and covalent immobilization of heparin,” Journal of Membrane Science, vol. 364, no. 1-2, pp. 194–202, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Lei, and Y. Yin, “Novel strategy in enhancing stability and corrosion resistance for hydrophobic functional films on copper surfaces,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1675–1679, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Sugumaran, H. Dali, and V. Semensi, “Chemical- and cuticular phenoloxidase-mediated synthesis of cysteinyl-catechol adducts,” Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 127–137, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. L. A. Burzio and J. H. Waite, “Cross-linking in adhesive quinoproteins: studies with model decapeptides,” Biochemistry, vol. 39, no. 36, pp. 11147–11153, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. H. Lee, J. Rho, and P. B. Messersmith, “Facile conjugation of biomolecules onto surfaces via mussel adhesive protein inspired coatings,” Advanced Materials, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 431–434, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. W.-H. Zhou, S.-F. Tang, Q.-H. Yao, F.-R. Chen, H.-H. Yang, and X.-R. Wang, “A quartz crystal microbalance sensor based on mussel-inspired molecularly imprinted polymer,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 585–589, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. Y. Ren, J. G. Rivera, L. He, H. Kulkarni, D.-K. Lee, and P. B. Messersmith, “Facile, high efficiency immobilization of lipase enzyme on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles via a biomimetic coating,” BMC Biotechnology, vol. 11, article 63, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Q. Liu, X. Wang, B. Yu, F. Zhou, and Q. Xue, “Self-healing surface hydrophobicity by consecutive release of hydrophobic molecules from mesoporous silica,” Langmuir, vol. 28, no. 13, pp. 5845–5849, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. J. Harrington, A. Masic, N. Holten-Andersen, J. H. Waite, and P. Fratzl, “Iron-clad fibers: a metal-based biological strategy for hard flexible coatings,” Science, vol. 328, no. 5975, pp. 216–220, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. H. Lee, N. F. Scherer, and P. B. Messersmith, “Single-molecule mechanics of mussel adhesion,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 35, pp. 12999–13003, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. Z. Zhang and R. B. Jordan, “Kinetics of dissociation of iron(III) complexes of tiron in aqueous acid,” Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1571–1576, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. L. Schmitt, M. Ludwig, H. E. Gaub, and R. Tampé, “A metal-chelating microscopy tip as a new toolbox for single-molecule experiments by atomic force microscopy,” Biophysical Journal, vol. 78, no. 6, pp. 3275–3285, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. J. Sever, J. T. Weisser, J. Monahan, S. Srinivasan, and J. J. Wilker, “Metal-mediated cross-linking in the generation of a marine-mussel adhesive,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 448–450, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. N. Holten-Andersen, T. E. Mates, M. S. Toprak, G. D. Stucky, F. W. Zok, and J. H. Waite, “Metals and the integrity of a biological coating: the cuticle of mussel byssus,” Langmuir, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 3323–3326, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. H. O. Ham, Z. Liu, K. H. A. Lau, H. Lee, and P. B. Messersmith, “Facile DNA immobilization on surfaces through a catecholamine polymer,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 732–736, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. M. Kang, J. Rho, I. S. Choi, P. B. Messersmith, and H. Lee, “Norepinephrine: material-independent, multifunctional surface modification reagent,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 131, no. 37, pp. 13224–13225, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. Y. Hu, Y. Zhu, X. Zhou, C. Ruan, H. Pan, and J. M. Catchmark, “Bioabsorbable cellulose composites prepared by an improved mineral-binding process for bone defect repair,” Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 1235–1246, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. Y. Cai, X. Wang, C. K. Poh et al., “Accelerated bone growth in vitro by the conjugation of BMP2 peptide with hydroxyapatite on titanium alloy,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 116, pp. 681–686, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. C.-Y. Chien, T.-Y. Liu, W.-H. Kuo, M.-J. Wang, and W.-B. Tsai, “Dopamine-assisted immobilization of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and RGD peptides to improve the osteoconductivity of titanium,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research—Part A, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 740–747, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. C.-Y. Chien and W.-B. Tsai, “Poly(dopamine)-assisted immobilization of Arg-Gly-Asp peptides, hydroxyapatite, and bone morphogenic protein-2 on titanium to improve the osteogenesis of bone marrow stem cells,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 5, no. 15, pp. 6975–6983, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. K. Sun, Y. Xie, D. Ye et al., “Mussel-inspired anchoring for patterning cells using polydopamine,” Langmuir, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 2131–2136, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. K. Sun, L. Song, Y. Xie et al., “Using self-polymerized dopamine to modify the antifouling property of oligo(ethylene glycol) self-assembled monolayers and its application in cell patterning,” Langmuir, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 5709–5712, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. W.-B. Tsai, C.-Y. Chien, H. Thissen, and J.-Y. Lai, “Dopamine-assisted immobilization of poly(ethylene imine) based polymers for control of cell-surface interactions,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 2518–2525, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. H.-W. Chien and W.-B. Tsai, “Fabrication of tunable micropatterned substrates for cell patterning via microcontact printing of polydopamine with poly(ethylene imine)-grafted copolymers,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 3678–3686, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. R. Luo, L. Tang, S. Zhong et al., “In vitro investigation of enhanced hemocompatibility and endothelial cell proliferation associated with quinone-rich polydopamine coating,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1704–1714, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. A. W. G. Nijhuis, J. J. J. P. van den Beucken, O. C. Boerman, J. A. Jansen, and S. C. G. Leeuwenburgh, “1-Step versus 2-step immobilization of alkaline phosphatase and bone morphogenetic protein-2 onto implant surfaces using polydopamine,” Tissue Engineering Part C: Methods, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 610–619, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. E. Vanderleyden, S. Van Bael, Y. C. Chai, J.-P. Kruth, J. Schrooten, and P. Dubruel, “Gelatin functionalised porous titanium alloy implants for orthopaedic applications,” Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 42, pp. 396–404, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S. Hong, K. Y. Kim, H. J. Wook et al., “Attenuation of the in vivo toxicity of biomaterials by polydopamine surface modification,” Nanomedicine, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 793–801, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. Q. Wei, B. Li, N. Yi et al., “Improving the blood compatibility of material surfaces via biomolecule-immobilized mussel-inspired coatings,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 38–45, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. H. Liu, J. Cui, W. Feng et al., “Local administration of calcitriol positively influences bone remodeling and maturation during restoration of mandibular bone defects in rats,” Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 49, pp. 14–24, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. L. Ge, L. Liu, H. Wei et al., “Preparation of a small intestinal submucosa modified polypropylene hybrid mesh via a mussel-inspired polydopamine coating for pelvic reconstruction,” Journal of Biomaterials Applications, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1385–1391, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. S. K. Madhurakkat Perikamana, J. Lee, T. Ahmad et al., “Effects of immobilized BMP-2 and nanofiber morphology on in vitro osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and in vivo collagen assembly of regenerated bone,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 7, no. 16, pp. 8798–8808, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. W. Li, Y. Zheng, X. Zhao et al., “Osteoinductive effects of free and immobilized bone forming peptide-1 on human adipose-derived stem cells,” PLoS ONE, vol. 11, no. 3, Article ID e0150294, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. X. Gao, J. Song, P. Ji et al., “Polydopamine-templated hydroxyapatite reinforced polycaprolactone composite nanofibers with enhanced cytocompatibility and osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 3499–3515, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. P. Li, I. Kangasniemi, K. de Groot, and T. Kokubo, “Bonelike hydroxyapatite induction by a gel-derived titania on a titanium substrate,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 1307–1312, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. X. Yu, J. Walsh, and M. Wei, “Covalent immobilization of collagen on titanium through polydopamine coating to improve cellular performances of MC3T3-E1 cells,” RSC Advances, vol. 4, no. 14, pp. 7185–7192, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. C. K. Poh, Z. Shi, T. Y. Lim, K. G. Neoh, and W. Wang, “The effect of VEGF functionalization of titanium on endothelial cells in vitro,” Biomaterials, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1578–1585, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. H. K. Makadia and S. J. Siegel, “Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) as biodegradable controlled drug delivery carrier,” Polymers, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1377–1397, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. H. Pan, Q. Zheng, S. Yang, and X. Guo, “Effects of functionalization of PLGA-[Asp-PEG]n copolymer surfaces with Arg-Gly-Asp peptides, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, and BMP-2-derived peptides on cell behavior in vitro,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research—Part A, vol. 102, no. 12, pp. 4526–4535, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. E. Ko, K. Yang, J. Shin, and S.-W. Cho, “Polydopamine-assisted osteoinductive peptide immobilization of polymer scaffolds for enhanced bone regeneration by human adipose-derived stem cells,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 3202–3213, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. Y. J. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H.-J. Cho, H. K. Kim, T. R. Yoon, and H. Shin, “Electrospun fibers immobilized with bone forming peptide-1 derived from BMP7 for guided bone regeneration,” Biomaterials, vol. 34, no. 21, pp. 5059–5069, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. T.-H. Kim, Y.-P. Yun, Y.-E. Park et al., “In vitro and in vivo evaluation of bone formation using solid freeform fabrication-based bone morphogenic protein-2 releasing PCL/PLGA scaffolds,” Biomedical Materials, vol. 9, no. 2, Article ID 025008, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. H.-J. Cho, S. K. Madhurakkat Perikamana, J.-H. Lee et al., “Effective immobilization of BMP-2 mediated by polydopamine coating on biodegradable nanofibers for enhanced in vivo bone formation,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 6, no. 14, pp. 11225–11235, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. D.-R. Jun, S.-K. Moon, and S.-W. Choi, “Uniform polydimethylsiloxane beads coated with polydopamine and their potential biomedical applications,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 121, pp. 395–399, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. P. Judeinstein and C. Sanchez, “Hybrid organic-inorganic materials: a land of multidisciplinarity,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 511–525, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. Y. Liu, K. Ai, and L. Lu, “Polydopamine and its derivative materials: synthesis and promising applications in energy, environmental, and biomedical fields,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 114, no. 9, pp. 5057–5115, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. W. Shen, K. Cai, Z. Yang, Y. Yan, W. Yang, and P. Liu, “Improved endothelialization of NiTi alloy by VEGF functionalized nanocoating,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 94, pp. 347–353, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. K. Kang, I. S. Choi, and Y. Nam, “A biofunctionalization scheme for neural interfaces using polydopamine polymer,” Biomaterials, vol. 32, no. 27, pp. 6374–6380, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. E. Kim, S. Lee, S. Hong et al., “Sticky ‘delivering-from’ strategies using viral vectors for efficient human neural stem cell infection by bioinspired catecholamines,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 8288–8294, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus