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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 2571060, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2571060
Research Article

Evaluation of Neuroprotective Effect of Thymoquinone Nanoformulation in the Rodent Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Model

1Department of Anaesthesiology, Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong 519000, China
2Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong 519000, China
3Department of Spine Surgery, Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong 519000, China
4Department of Laboratory, Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong 519000, China

Received 9 April 2016; Accepted 10 July 2016

Academic Editor: Sanjula Baboota

Copyright © 2016 Xiao-Yu Xiao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of optimized thymoquinone loaded PLGA-chitosan nanoparticles delivered via nose to brain route in the rodent cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model. The neuroprotective efficacy of the optimized thymoquinone loaded PLGA-chitosan nanoparticles was evaluated in middle cerebral artery occluded rats by various pharmacodynamic and biochemical studies. The pharmacokinetics of thymoquinone loaded PLGA-chitosan nanoparticles in the brain and blood plasma together with qualitative localization of florescent labelled PLGA-chitosan nanoparticles in brain tissues were also determined. Intranasal delivery of optimized thymoquinone loaded PLGA-chitosan nanoparticles ( nm,  mV) to brain significantly reduced the ischemia infarct volume and enhanced the locomotor activity and grip strength in the middle cerebral artery occluded rats. Biochemical studies showed that intranasal delivery of thymoquinone loaded PLGA-chitosan nanoparticles significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation but elevated the glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase in the brain of middle cerebral artery occluded rats. The pharmacokinetic and localization studies showed that thymoquinone loaded PLGA-chitosan nanoparticles facilitated the delivery of thymoquinone to brain by intranasal nose to brain transport pathways and enhanced their pharmacokinetic profile in brain tissues. Thus, intranasal delivery of thymoquinone loaded PLGA-chitosan nanoparticles to brain could be potentially used for the neuroprotection and treatment of cerebral ischemia.