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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 2891810, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2891810
Research Article

The Expression of NOX4 in Smooth Muscles of Small Airway Correlates with the Disease Severity of COPD

1Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China
2Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China
3Binzhou People’s Hospital, Binzhou, Shandong 256600, China
4Department of Pathology, The General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China
5Department of Thoracic Surgery, The General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China
6Institute of Human Stem Cell Research at the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750004, China

Received 2 May 2016; Revised 23 June 2016; Accepted 18 July 2016

Academic Editor: Pankaj K. Bhavsar

Copyright © 2016 Xianyan Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling is a hallmark in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOXs) produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in COPD pathogenesis. In the present study, the expression of NOX4 and its correlation with the ASM hypertrophy/hyperplasia, clinical pulmonary functions, and the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF-) in the ASM of COPD small airways were investigated by semiquantitative morphological and/or immunohistochemistry staining methods. The results showed that an elevated expression of NOX4 and TGF-, along with an increased volume of ASM mass, was found in the ASM of small airways in COPD patients. The abundance of NOX4 protein in the ASM was increased with disease severity and inversely correlated with the pulmonary functions in COPD patients. In addition, the expression of NOX4 and ASM marker α-SMA was colocalized, and the increased NOX4 expression was found to accompany an upregulated expression of TGF- in the ASM of small airways of COPD lung. These results indicate that NOX4 may be a key regulator in ASM remodeling of small airway, in part through a mechanism interacting with TGF- signaling in the pathogenesis of COPD, which warrants further investigation.