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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 3208429, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3208429
Review Article

The Circadian NAD+ Metabolism: Impact on Chromatin Remodeling and Aging

Laboratory of Gene Regulation Research, Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192, Japan

Received 7 September 2016; Accepted 30 October 2016

Academic Editor: Keiko Kawauchi

Copyright © 2016 Yasukazu Nakahata and Yasumasa Bessho. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Gene expression is known to be a stochastic phenomenon. The stochastic gene expression rate is thought to be altered by topological change of chromosome and/or by chromatin modifications such as acetylation and methylation. Changes in mechanical properties of chromosome/chromatin by soluble factors, mechanical stresses from the environment, or metabolites determine cell fate, regulate cellular functions, or maintain cellular homeostasis. Circadian clock, which drives the expression of thousands of genes with 24-hour rhythmicity, has been known to be indispensable for maintaining cellular functions/homeostasis. During the last decade, it has been demonstrated that chromatin also undergoes modifications with 24-hour rhythmicity and facilitates the fine-tuning of circadian gene expression patterns. In this review, we cover data which suggests that chromatin structure changes in a circadian manner and that NAD+ is the key metabolite for circadian chromatin remodeling. Furthermore, we discuss the relationship among circadian clock, NAD+ metabolism, and aging/age-related diseases. In addition, the interventions of NAD+ metabolism for the prevention and treatment of aging and age-related diseases are also discussed.