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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 3627463, 8 pages
Research Article

The Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of Propolis with Chlorhexidine against Oral Pathogens: An In Vitro Study

1Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Periodontology, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Mahmutbey, 34217 Istanbul, Turkey
2Gazi University Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Medical Microbiology, Emek, 06510 Ankara, Turkey
3Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Center for Dental Sciences, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Etlik, 06010 Ankara, Turkey
4Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Department of Analytical Toxicology, Etlik, 06010 Ankara, Turkey
5Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Haydarpasa Training Hospital, Department of Dentistry, Section of Periodontology, Haydarpasa, 34668 Istanbul, Turkey
6Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Surgery, Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Mahmutbey, 34217 Istanbul, Turkey

Received 27 September 2015; Accepted 7 December 2015

Academic Editor: Satoshi Imazato

Copyright © 2016 A. Eralp Akca et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on planktonic Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces israelii, Candida albicans, and their single-species biofilms by agar dilution and broth microdilution test methods. Both agents inhibited the growth of all planktonic species. On the other hand, CHX exhibited lower minimum bactericidal concentrations than EEP against biofilms of A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. aureus, and E. faecalis whereas EEP yielded a better result against Lactobacilli and P. intermedia. The bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of both agents were found to be equal against biofilms of Streptecocci, P. gingivalis, A. israelii, and C. albicans. The results of this study revealed that propolis was more effective in inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria than the Gram-negative bacteria in their planktonic state and it was suggested that EEP could be as effective as CHX on oral microorganisms in their biofilm state.