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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 3704150, 7 pages
Research Article

Fecal Colonization with Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase and AmpC-Producing Escherichia coli

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Microbiology Division, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
3Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt
4College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Received 18 December 2015; Accepted 10 May 2016

Academic Editor: Wejdene Mansour

Copyright © 2016 Mohamed H. Al-Agamy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESβLs) and AmpC β-lactamases cause β-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli. Fecal colonization by ESβL- and/or AmpC-positive E. coli is a source of nosocomial infections. Methods. In order to investigate inpatient fecal colonization by ESβLs and AmpC, antibiotic sensitivity tests were conducted and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the disk diffusion method and E-test, respectively. Characterization of ESβL and AmpC was performed using E-test strips, and a set of PCRs and DNA sequence analyses were used to characterize the ESβL and AmpC genes. Results. The whole collection of E. coli isolates () was sensitive to imipenem, tigecycline, colistin, and fosfomycin, while 26% of the isolates showed reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime (MIC ≥ 4 μg/mL). ESβL was phenotypically identified in 26% (13/50) of cases, while AmpC activity was detected in two ESβL-producing E. coli isolates. All ESβL-producing E. coli were positive for the CTX-M gene, eleven isolates carried , and two isolates carried gene. Two CTX-M-positive E. coli isolates carried . Conclusions. The alimentary tract is a significant reservoir for ESβL- and/or AmpC-producing E. coli, which may lead to nosocomial infection.