Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 4369750, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4369750
Research Article

Corneal Dendritic Cell Density Is Associated with Subbasal Nerve Plexus Features, Ocular Surface Disease Index, and Serum Vitamin D in Evaporative Dry Eye Disease

1Cornea and Refractive Services, Narayana Nethralaya, Bangalore 560 010, India
2GROW Research Laboratory, Narayana Nethralaya Foundation, Bangalore 560 099, India

Received 13 November 2015; Accepted 3 January 2016

Academic Editor: Michele Iester

Copyright © 2016 Rohit Shetty et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. A. Smith, J. Albenz, C. Begley et al., “The epidemiology of dry eye disease: report of the epidemiology subcommittee of the international Dry Eye WorkShop (2007),” Ocular Surface, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 93–107, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. A. Lemp, C. Baudouin, J. Baum et al., “The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the definition and classification subcommittee of the international Dry Eye WorkShop (2007),” Ocular Surface, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 75–92, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. N. Rao, “Topical cyclosporine 0.05% for the prevention of dry eye disease progression,” Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 157–164, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Galor, H. Batawi, E. R. Felix et al., “Incomplete response to artificial tears is associated with features of neuropathic ocular pain,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. A. Galor, L. Zlotcavitch, S. D. Walter et al., “Dry eye symptom severity and persistence are associated with symptoms of neuropathic pain,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 665–668, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. P. Rosenthal, I. Baran, and D. S. Jacobs, “Corneal pain without stain: is it real?” Ocular Surface, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 28–40, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Galor, R. C. Levitt, E. R. Felix, E. R. Martin, and C. D. Sarantopoulos, “Neuropathic ocular pain: an important yet underevaluated feature of dry eye,” Eye, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 301–312, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. A. Alhatem, B. Cavalcanti, and P. Hamrah, “In vivo confocal microscopy in dry eye disease and related conditions,” Seminars in Ophthalmology, vol. 27, no. 5-6, pp. 138–148, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. L. Niederer and C. N. J. McGhee, “Clinical in vivo confocal microscopy of the human cornea in health and disease,” Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 30–58, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Pritchard, K. Edwards, A. M. Shahidi et al., “Corneal markers of diabetic neuropathy,” Ocular Surface, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 17–28, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. V. Patel and C. N. J. McGhee, “In vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy confirms that the human corneal sub-basal nerve plexus is a highly dynamic structure,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 3409–3412, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. Villani, E. Garoli, V. Termine, F. Pichi, R. Ratiglia, and P. Nucci, “Corneal confocal microscopy in dry eye treated with corticosteroids,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 92, no. 9, pp. e290–e295, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. A. Kheirkhah, R. Rahimi Darabad, A. Cruzat et al., “Corneal epithelial immune dendritic cell alterations in subtypes of dry eye disease: a pilot in vivo confocal microscopic study,” Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 7179–7185, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. F. Machetta, A. M. Fea, A. G. Actis, U. de Sanctis, P. Dalmasso, and F. M. Grignolo, “In vivo confocal microscopic evaluation of corneal langerhans cells in dry eye patients,” The Open Ophthalmology Journal, vol. 8, pp. 51–59, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. D. V. Patel and C. N. J. McGhee, “Mapping the corneal sub-basal nerve plexus in keratoconus by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 1348–1351, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. I. Kinard, A. G. Smith, J. R. Singleton et al., “Chronic migraine is associated with reduced corneal nerve fiber density and symptoms of dry eye,” Headache, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 543–549, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. B. Steger, L. Speicher, W. Philipp, and N. E. Bechrakis, “In vivo confocal microscopic characterisation of the cornea in chronic graft-versus-host disease related severe dry eye disease,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 160–165, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. Villani, D. Galimberti, F. Viola, C. Mapelli, N. Del Papa, and R. Ratiglia, “Corneal involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: an in vivo confocal study,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 560–564, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. M. Benítez-Del-Castillo, M. C. Acosta, M. A. Wassfi et al., “Relation between corneal innervation with confocal microscopy and corneal sensitivity with noncontact esthesiometry in patients with dry eye,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 173–181, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. L. Gayton, “Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease,” Clinical Ophthalmology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 405–412, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Galor, H. Gardener, B. Pouyeh, W. Feuer, and H. Florez, “Effect of a mediterranean dietary pattern and vitamin D levels on dry eye syndrome,” Cornea, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 437–441, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. E. Kurtul, P. A. Özer, and M. S. Aydinli, “The association of vitamin D deficiency with tear break-up time and Schirmer testing in non-Sjögren dry eye,” Eye, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1081–1084, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. E. E. Shipton and E. A. Shipton, “Vitamin D deficiency and pain: clinical evidence of low levels of vitamin D and supplementation in chronic pain states,” Pain and Therapy, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 67–87, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. S. Straube, S. Derry, R. A. Moore, and H. J. McQuay, “Vitamin D for the treatment of chronic painful conditions in adults,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 5, no. 1, Article ID CD007771, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. L. Singman, D. Poon, and A. S. Jun, “Putative corneal neuralgia responding to vitamin D supplementation,” Case Reports in Ophthalmology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 105–108, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. Arita, K. Itoh, K. Inoue, and S. Amano, “Noncontact infrared meibography to document age-related changes of the meibomian glands in a normal population,” Ophthalmology, vol. 115, no. 5, pp. 911–915, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. M. Schiffman, M. D. Christianson, G. Jacobsen, J. D. Hirsch, and B. L. Reis, “Reliability and validity of the ocular surface disease index,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 118, no. 5, pp. 615–621, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. L. Miller, J. G. Walt, D. R. Mink et al., “Minimal clinically important difference for the ocular surface disease index,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 94–101, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. A. Dabbah, J. Graham, I. N. Petropoulos, M. Tavakoli, and R. A. Malik, “Automatic analysis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy using multi-scale quantitative morphology of nerve fibres in corneal confocal microscopy imaging,” Medical Image Analysis, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 738–747, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Tavakoli, C. Quattrini, C. Abbott et al., “Corneal confocal microscopy: a novel noninvasive test to diagnose and stratify the severity of human diabetic neuropathy,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1792–1797, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. Bitirgen, A. Ozkagnici, B. Bozkurt, and R. A. Malik, “In vivo corneal confocal microscopic analysis in patients with keratoconus,” International Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 534–539, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. M. Ferdousi, S. Azmi, I. N. Petropoulos et al., “Corneal confocal microscopy detects small fibre neuropathy in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer and nerve regeneration in chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy,” PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 10, Article ID e0139394, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. I. N. Petropoulos, U. Alam, H. Fadavi et al., “Rapid automated diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy with in vivo corneal confocal microscopy,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 2071–2078, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Kheirkhah, R. Muller, J. Mikolajczak et al., “Comparison of standard versus wide-field composite images of the corneal subbasal layer by in vivo confocal microscopy,” Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 5801–5807, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. B. M. Hoçal, N. Örnek, G. Zilelioglu, and A. H. Elhan, “Morphology of corneal nerves and corneal sensation in dry eye: a preliminary study,” Eye, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1276–1279, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Zhang, J. Chen, L. Luo, Q. Xiao, M. Sun, and Z. Liu, “Altered corneal nerves in aqueous tear deficiency viewed by in vivo confocal microscopy,” Cornea, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 818–824, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. Wang, D. Fan, S. Zhang, and X. Wang, “Early diagnosis of painful diabetic neuropathy by corneal confocal microscopy,” Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, vol. 94, no. 33, pp. 2602–2606, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  38. A. Ellis and D. L. H. Bennett, “Neuroinflammation and the generation of neuropathic pain,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 26–37, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Y. T. Jeon, H. Na, H. Ryu, and Y. Chung, “Modulation of dendritic cell activation and subsequent Th1 cell polarization by lidocaine,” PLOS ONE, vol. 10, no. 10, Article ID e0139845, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. J. Luo, J. Feng, S. Liu, E. T. Walters, and H. Hu, “Molecular and cellular mechanisms that initiate pain and itch,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 72, no. 17, pp. 3201–3223, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. T. Hattori, S. K. Chauhan, H. Lee et al., “Characterization of langerin-expressing dendritic cell subsets in the normal cornea,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 4598–4604, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. N. Gao, J. Yin, G. S. Yoon, Q.-S. Mi, and F.-S. X. Yu, “Dendritic cell-epithelium interplay is a determinant factor for corneal epithelial wound repair,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 179, no. 5, pp. 2243–2253, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. Hamrah, Y. Liu, Q. Zhang, and M. R. Dana, “Alterations in corneal stromal dendritic cell phenotype and distribution in inflammation,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 121, no. 8, pp. 1132–1140, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. Lin, W. Li, N. Dong et al., “Changes in corneal epithelial layer inflammatory cells in aqueous tear-deficient dry eye,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 122–128, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. I. S. Tuisku, Y. T. Konttinen, L. M. Konttinen, and T. M. Tervo, “Alterations in corneal sensitivity and nerve morphology in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 879–885, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. Chhadva, T. Lee, C. D. Sarantopoulos et al., “Human tear serotonin levels correlate with symptoms and signs of dry eye,” Ophthalmology, vol. 122, no. 8, pp. 1675–1680, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. R. P. Patrick and B. N. Ames, “Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 2207–2222, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. J. Bartley, “Post herpetic neuralgia, schwann cell activation and vitamin D,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 927–929, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. I. Tegeder, R. Scheving, I. Wittig, and G. Geisslinger, “SNO-ing at the nociceptive synapse?” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 366–389, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Barragan, M. Good, and J. Kolls, “Regulation of dendritic cell function by vitamin D,” Nutrients, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 8127–8151, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. T. Suzuki, Y. Sano, C. Sotozono, and S. Kinoshita, “Regulatory effects of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) on cytokine production by human corneal epithelial cells,” Current Eye Research, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 127–130, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar