Molecular Role of EGFR-MAPK Pathway in Patchouli Alcohol-Induced Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest on A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo
The apoptosis effect and involved signaling pathway activity of PA on A549 cells. The A549 cells were exposed for 48 h with increasing PA. (a) PA induced MMP collapse for 48 h treatment. (b) PA exposure induced caspase 9 activation in A549 cells for 48 h. (c) PA exposure induced caspase 3 activation in A549 cells for 48 h. (d) The Hoechst staining immunofluorescence microscopy image of A549 cells for Hoechst in vitro; Scale Bar: 10 μm. (e) The TUNEL staining immunofluorescence microscopy image of A549 cells for DAPI (blue), TUNEL FITC (green), and their merge in vitro; Scale Bar: 50 μm. (f) Effect of PA on EGFR and MAPK signaling pathways in A549 cells. Statistical differences were compared between PA treatment group and control group and considered significant at the levels of , , or .
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