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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 4697017, 8 pages
Review Article

Construction Formula of Biological Age Using the Principal Component Analysis

1Department of Nephrology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Ziqiang Street, No. 218, Changchun, Jilin 130041, China
2Department of Nephrology, Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Chinese People’s Liberation Army Institute of Nephrology, State Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease, National Clinic Research Center for Kidney Diseases, Fuxing Road, No. 28, Beijing 100853, China
3Central Hospital of Cangzhou, Xinhua Middle Street, No. 201, Cangzhou, Hebei 061001, China
4Department of Life Sciences, The National Natural Science Foundation of China, Shuangqing Road, No. 83, Beijing 100085, China

Received 31 August 2016; Accepted 17 November 2016

Academic Editor: Barbara K. Pierscionek

Copyright © 2016 Linpei Jia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The biological age (BA) equation is a prediction model that utilizes an algorithm to combine various biological markers of ageing. Different from traditional concepts, the BA equation does not emphasize the importance of a golden index but focuses on using indices of vital organs to represent the senescence of whole body. This model has been used to assess the ageing process in a more precise way and may predict possible diseases better as compared with the chronological age (CA). The principal component analysis (PCA) is applied as one of the common and frequently used methods in the construction of the BA formula. Compared with other methods, PCA has its own study procedures and features. Herein we summarize the up-to-date knowledge about the BA formula construction and discuss the influential factors, so as to give an overview of BA estimate by PCA, including composition of samples, choices of test items, and selection of ageing biomarkers. We also discussed the advantages and disadvantages of PCA with reference to the construction mechanism, accuracy, and practicability of several common methods in the construction of the BA formula.