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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4841756, 20 pages
Research Article

RNA Sequencing Reveals Xyr1 as a Transcription Factor Regulating Gene Expression beyond Carbohydrate Metabolism

Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China

Received 31 August 2016; Accepted 6 November 2016

Academic Editor: Muhammad I. Rajoka

Copyright © 2016 Liang Ma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Xyr1 has been demonstrated to be the main transcription activator of (hemi)cellulases in the well-known cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei. This study comprehensively investigates the genes regulated by Xyr1 through RNA sequencing to produce the transcription profiles of T. reesei Rut-C30 and its xyr1 deletion mutant (Δxyr1), cultured on lignocellulose or glucose. xyr1 deletion resulted in 467 differentially expressed genes on inducing medium. Almost all functional genes involved in (hemi)cellulose degradation and many transporters belonging to the sugar porter family in the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) were downregulated in Δxyr1. By contrast, all differentially expressed protease, lipase, chitinase, some ATP-binding cassette transporters, and heat shock protein-encoding genes were upregulated in Δxyr1. When cultured on glucose, a total of 281 genes were expressed differentially in Δxyr1, most of which were involved in energy, solute transport, lipid, amino acid, and monosaccharide as well as secondary metabolism. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that the intracellular β-glucosidase bgl2, the putative nonenzymatic cellulose-attacking gene cip1, the MFS lactose transporter lp, the nmrA-like gene, endo T, the acid protease pepA, and the small heat shock protein hsp23 were probable Xyr1-targets. These results might help elucidate the regulation system for synthesis and secretion of (hemi)cellulases in T. reesei Rut-C30.