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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 4864195, 7 pages
Review Article

Apical External Root Resorption and Repair in Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Biological Events

1Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria 0204, South Africa
2Private Practice, 15 School Road, Corner Rivonia Road, Morningside, Johannesburg, South Africa

Received 14 December 2015; Accepted 8 March 2016

Academic Editor: Shinji Kuroda

Copyright © 2016 Liviu Feller et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Some degree of external root resorption is a frequent, unpredictable, and unavoidable consequence of orthodontic tooth movement mediated by odontoclasts/cementoclasts originating from circulating precursor cells in the periodontal ligament. Its pathogenesis involves mechanical forces initiating complex interactions between signalling pathways activated by various biological agents. Resorption of cementum is regulated by mechanisms similar to those controlling osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Following root resorption there is repair by cellular cementum, but factors mediating the transition from resorption to repair are not clear. In this paper we review some of the biological events associated with orthodontically induced external root resorption.