Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 5185303, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5185303
Review Article

Nonsteroidal Topical Immunomodulators in Allergology and Dermatology

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Clinic of Dermatovenereology Diseases, Clinical Center of Vojvodina, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, 21 000 Novi Sad, Serbia

Received 21 January 2016; Accepted 22 March 2016

Academic Editor: Alexis Labrada-Rosado

Copyright © 2016 Marina Jovanović and Zoran Golušin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Khandpur, V. K. Sharma, and K. Sumanth, “Topical immunomodulators in dermatology,” Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 131–139, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Berth-Jones, “Topical therapy,” in Rook's Textbook of Dermatology, T. Burns, S. Breathnach, N. Cox, and C. Griffiths, Eds., pp. 73.1–73.52, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 6th edition, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  3. Y. Ma and Z. Lu, “Treatment with topical tacrolimus favors chronic actinic dermatitis: a clinical and immunopathological study,” Journal of Dermatological Treatment, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 171–177, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. Novak, B. Kwiek, and T. Bieber, “The mode of topical immunomodulators in the immunological network of atopic dermatitis,” Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 160–164, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. Inoue, N. Katoh, and S. Kishimoto, “Prolonged topical application of tacrolimus inhibits immediate hypersensitivity reactions by reducing degranulation of mast cells,” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 13–16, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. M. Mandelin, A. Remitz, H. M. Virtanen, L. P. Malmberg, T. Haahtela, and S. Reitamo, “A 10-year open follow-up of eczema and respiratory symptoms in patients with atopic dermatitis treated with topical tacrolimus for the first 4 years,” Journal of Dermatological Treatment, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 167–170, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Nakagawa, “Comparison of the efficacy and safety of 0.1% tacrolimus ointment with topical corticosteroids in adult patients with atopic dermatitis: review of randomised, double-blind clinical studies conducted in Japan,” Clinical Drug Investigation, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 235–246, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. A. Khan, L. Khondker, and D. Afroze, “Comparative efficacy of topical mometasone furoate 0.1% cream vs topical tacrolimus 0.03% ointment in the treatment of atopic dermatitis,” Journal of Pakistan Association of Dermatologists, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 57–62, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. D. Bos and M. M. H. M. Meinardi, “The 500 Dalton rule for the skin penetration of chemical compounds and drugs,” Experimental Dermatology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 165–169, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. V. Pople and K. K. Singh, “Development and evaluation of colloidal modified nanolipid carrier: application to topical delivery of tacrolimus, part II-In vivo assessment, drug targeting, efficacy, and safety in treatment for atopic dermatitis,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 72–83, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. Yamamoto and K. Nishioka, “Topical tacrolimus is effective for facial lesions of psoriasis,” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 80, no. 6, p. 451, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Vente, K. Reich, R. Rupprecht, and C. Neumann, “Erosive mucosal lichen planus: response to topical treatment with tacrolimus,” The British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 140, no. 2, pp. 338–342, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. C. Lyon, A. J. Smith, M. H. Beck, G. A. E. Wong, and C. E. M. Griffiths, “Parastomal pyoderma gangrenosum: clinical features and management,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 992–1002, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. G. Larsen and J. P. Thyssen, “Pustular penile pyoderma gangrenosum successfully treated with topical tacrolimus ointment,” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 104–105, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. V. Marzano, V. Trevisan, R. Lazzari, and C. Crosti, “Topical tacrolimus for the treatment of localized, idiopathic, newly diagnosed pyoderma gangrenosum,” The Journal of Dermatological Treatment, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 140–143, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. J. Choi and P. Nghiem, “Tacrolimus ointment in the treatment of chronic cutaneous graft-vs-host disease: a case series of 18 patients,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 137, no. 9, pp. 1202–1206, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. Horiuchi, S.-J. Bae, and I. Katayama, “FK506 (tacrolimus) inhibition of intracellular production and enhancement of interleukin 1α through glucocorticoid application to chemically treated human keratinocytes,” Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 241–246, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. V. Madan, P. J. August, and R. J. G. Chalmers, “Efficacy of topical tacrolimus 0.3% in clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment in therapy-resistant cutaneous lupus erythematosus: a cohort study,” Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 27–30, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. T. Kelmenson, N. K. Rao, and M. B. Raizman, “Treatment of allergic eye diaseases,” in Ocular Surface Disease: Cornea, Conjunctiva and Tear Film, E. J. Holland, M. J. Mannis, and W. B. Lee, Eds., pp. 117–124, Elsevier Saunders, London, UK, 6th edition, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  20. K. Y. Lee, S. Y. Jeon, J. W. Hong et al., “Endothelin-1 enhances the proliferation of normal human melanocytes in a paradoxical manner from the TNF-α-inhibited condition, but tacrolimus promotes exclusively the cellular migration without proliferation: a proposed action mechanism for combination therapy of phototherapy and topical tacrolimus in vitiligo treatment,” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 609–616, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. I. Majid, “Does topical tacrolimus ointment enhance the efficacy of narrowband ultraviolet B therapy in vitiligo? A left-right comparison study,” Photodermatology Photoimmunology & Photomedicine, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 230–234, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. Satyanarayan, A. Kanwar, D. Parsad, and K. Vinay, “Efficacy and tolerability of combined treatment with NB-UVB and topical tacrolimus versus NB-UVB alone in patients with vitiligo vulgaris: a randomized intra-individual open comparative trial,” Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 525–527, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Pagliarello and A. Paradisi, “Topical tacrolimus is useful for avoiding suction-blister epidermal grafting depigmentation in non-segmental vitiligo: a case report,” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 181–182, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. W. Choi, S. E. Chang, H. Bak et al., “Topical immunomodulators are effective for treatment of vitiligo,” The Journal of Dermatology, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 503–507, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. J. Nordal, G. E. Guleng, and J. R. Rönnevig, “Treatment of vitiligo with narrowband-UVB (TL01) combined with tacrolimus ointment (0.1%) vs. placebo ointment, a randomized right/left double-blind comparative study,” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1440–1443, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Namkoong, J. Chung, J. Yoo et al., “Topical tacrolimus does not negatively impact acute skin wound healing,” Experimental Dermatology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 369–371, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. M. Mandelin, K. K. Eklund, and S. Reitamo, “Leg ulcers treated with topical tacrolimus in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 633–634, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. N. P. Patel, B. Laguda, N. M. Roberts, N. D. Francis, and K. Agnew, “Treatment of eosinophilic pustulosis of infancy with topical tacrolimus,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 167, no. 5, pp. 1189–1191, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. S. Housman, A. B. Norton, S. R. Feldman et al., “Tacrolimus ointment: utilization patterns in children under age 2 years,” Dermatology Online Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 2, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Erdogan, J. R. Wright Jr., and V. C. McAlister, “Liposomal tacrolimus lotion as a novel topical agent for treatment of immune-mediated skin disorders: experimental studies in a murine model,” The British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 146, no. 6, pp. 964–967, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S.-L. Chen, J. Yan, and F.-S. Wang, “Two topical calcineurin inhibitors for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in pediatric patients: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials,” The Journal of Dermatological Treatment, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 144–156, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Reitamo, J. P. Ortonne, C. Sand et al., “A multicentre, randomized, double-blind, controlled study of long-term treatment with 0.1% tacrolimus ointment in adults with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis,” The British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 152, no. 6, pp. 1282–1289, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Ruzicka, T. Bieber, E. Schöpf et al., “A short-term trial of tacrolimus ointment for atopic dermatitis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 337, no. 12, pp. 816–821, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. G. Berger, M. Duvic, A. S. van Voorhees, and I. J. Frieden, “The use of topical calcineurin inhibitors in dermatology: safety concerns. Report of the American Academy of Dermatology Association Task Force,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 818–823, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. Hultsch, K. D. Müller, J. G. Meingassner, M. Grassberger, R. E. Schopf, and J. Knop, “Ascomycin macrolactam derivative SDZ ASM 981 inhibits the release of granule-associated mediators and of newly synthesized cytokines in RBL 2H3 mast cells in an immunophilin-dependent manner,” Archives of Dermatological Research, vol. 290, no. 9, pp. 501–507, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. N. Y. Yoon, M. Y. Jung, D. H. Kim, H. J. Lee, and E. H. Choi, “Topical glucocorticoid or pimecrolimus treatment suppresses thymic stromal lymphopoietin-related allergic inflammatory mechanism in an oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis murine model,” Archives of Dermatological Research, vol. 307, no. 7, pp. 569–581, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Billich, H. Aschauer, A. Aszódi, and A. Stuetz, “Percutaneous absorption of drugs used in atopic eczema: pimecrolimus permeates less through skin than corticosteroids and tacrolimus,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 269, no. 1, pp. 29–35, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. S. Paller, M. Lebwohl, A. B. Fleischer Jr. et al., “Tacrolimus ointment is more effective than pimecrolimus cream with a similar safety profile in the treatment of atopic dermatitis: results from 3 randomized, comparative studies,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 810–822, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Reitamo, A. Remitz, H. Kyllönen, and J. Saarikko, “Topical noncorticosteroid immunomodulation in the treatment of atopic dermatitis,” American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 381–388, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. V. N. Sehgal and M. Pahwa, “Pimecrolimus, yet another intriguing topical immunomodulator,” The Journal of Dermatological Treatment, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 147–150, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. Luger, E. J. M. Van Leent, M. Graeber et al., “SDZ ASM 981: an emerging safe and effective treatment for atopic dermatitis,” The British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 144, no. 4, pp. 788–794, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. B. Sigurgeirsson, A. Boznanski, G. Todd et al., “Safety and efficacy of pimecrolimus in atopic dermatitis: a 5-year randomized trial,” Pediatrics, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 597–606, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. L. P. H. Yang and M. P. Curran, “Spotlight on topical pimecrolimus in pediatric atopic dermatitis,” American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 295–298, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. Paul, M. Cork, A. B. Rossi, K. A. Papp, N. Barbier, and Y. de Prost, “Safety and tolerability of 1% pimecrolimus cream among infants: experience with 1133 patients treated for up to 2 years,” Pediatrics, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. e118–e128, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. Ring, A. Alomar, T. Bieber et al., “Guidelines for treatment of atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) Part II,” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1176–1193, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. A. Jovanović, M. Poljački, N. Mimica-Dukić et al., “Sesquiterpene lactone mix patch testing supplemented with dandelion extract in patients with allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and non-allergic chronic inflammatory skin diseases,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 101–110, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Jovanović, “Manifestations of contact allergy,” Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo, vol. 140, no. 11-12, pp. 786–791, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Wollenberg, R. Frank, J. Kroth, and T. Ruzicka, “Proactive therapy of atopic eczema—an evidence based concept with a behavioral background,” Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 117–121, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. U. Darsow, K. Eyerich, and J. Ring, Eczema (E), Atopic Eczema (AE) and Atopic Dermatitis (AD), World Allergy Organization, 2016, http://www.worldallergy.org/professional/allergic_diseases_center/atopiceczema/.
  50. M. Jovanović, “Current concepts of pathophysiology, epidemiology and classification of pruritus,” Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo, vol. 142, no. 1-2, pp. 106–112, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. T. S. Patel, S. C. Greer, and R. B. Skinner Jr., “Cancer concerns with topical immunomodulators in atopic dermatitis: overview of data and recommendations to clinicians,” American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 189–194, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Fujisawa Healthcare, “Background package,” in Proceedings of the Meeting of the Pediatric Advisory Committee of the US Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC, USA, February 2005.
  53. T. Hultsch, “Elidel (pimecrolimus) cream 1% safety,” in Proceedings of the Meeting of the Pediatric Advisory Committee of the US Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC, USA, February 2005.
  54. F. M. Arellano, C. E. Wentworth, A. Arana, C. Fernández, and C. F. Paul, “Risk of lymphoma following exposure to calcineurin inhibitors and topical steroids in patients with atopic dermatitis,” The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 808–816, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. G. Plötz and J. Ring, “What's new in atopic eczema?” Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 249–267, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. Harper, A. Green, G. Scott et al., “First experience of topical SDZ ASM 981 in children with atopic dermatitis,” The British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 144, no. 4, pp. 781–787, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. Kapp, K. Papp, A. Bingham et al., “Long-term management of atopic dermatitis in infants with topical pimecrolimus, a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug,” The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 277–284, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. T. Luger and A. Nieto, “Pimecrolimus cream 1% in infants with mild-to moderate atopic dermatitis: efficacy and safety results from a 5-year randomized study,” in 21th Congress of the EADV (27–30 Sep 2012 Praque Czech Republik), PRA 12-0252, European Academy of Dermatology and Venerology, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  59. U. Mrowietz, M. Graeber, M. Bräutigam et al., “The novel ascomycin derivative SDZ ASM 981 is effective for psoriasis when used topically under occlusion,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 139, no. 6, pp. 992–996, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. T. Goldstein, A. Creasey, R. Pfau, D. Phillips, and L. J. Burrows, “A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of clobetasol versus pimecrolimus in patients with vulvar lichen sclerosus,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. e99–e104, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. E. Koc, E. Arca, O. Kose, and A. Akar, “An open, randomized, prospective, comparative study of topical pimecrolimus 1% cream and topical ketoconazole 2% cream in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis,” The Journal of Dermatological Treatment, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 4–9, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. D. Rigopoulos, D. Ioannides, D. Kalogeromitros, S. Gregoriou, and A. Katsambas, “Pimecrolimus cream 1% vs. betamethasone 17-valerate 0.1% cream in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis. A randomized open-label clinical trial,” The British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 151, no. 5, pp. 1071–1075, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. B. Madke, “Topical rapamycin (sirolimus) for facial angiofibromas,” Indian Dermatology Online Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 54–57, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. R. Salido, G. Garnacho-Saucedo, I. Cuevas-Asencio et al., “Sustained clinical effectiveness and favorable safety profile of topical sirolimus for tuberous sclerosis—associated facial angiofibroma,” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1315–1318, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. P. E. Dill, G. de Bernardis, P. Weber, and U. Lösch, “Topical everolimus for facial angiofibromas in the tuberous sclerosis complex. A first case report,” Pediatric Neurology, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 109–113, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. K. Jitsukawa, J. Ring, U. Weyer, W. Kimmig, and H. Radloff, “Topical cyclosporine in chronic benign familial pemphigus (Hailey-Hailey disease),” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 625–626, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. O. Simonetti, G. Lucarini, M. L. Bernardini, C. Simoncini, G. Biagini, and A. Offidani, “Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, apoptosis inhibitors (survivin and p16) and CCL27 in alopecia areata before and after diphencyprone treatment: an immunohistochemical study,” The British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 150, no. 5, pp. 940–948, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. Zöller, P. Freyschmidt-Paul, M. Vitacolonna, K. J. McElwee, S. Hummel, and R. Hoffmann, “Chronic delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction as a means to treat alopecia areata,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 398–408, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. D. Wasserman, D. A. Guzman-Sanchez, K. Scott, and A. McMichael, “Alopecia areata,” International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 121–131, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. T. Wasyłyszyn, W. Kozłowski, and S. L. Zabielski, “Changes in distribution pattern of CD8 lymphocytes in the scalp in alopecia areata during treatment with diphencyprone,” Archives of Dermatological Research, vol. 299, no. 5-6, pp. 231–237, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. N. Hunter, O. Shaker, and N. Marei, “Diphencyprone and topical tacrolimus as two topical immunotherapeutic modalities. Are they effective in the treatment of alopecia areata among Egyptian patients? A study using CD4, CD8 and MHC II as markers,” The Journal of Dermatological Treatment, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 2–10, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. Y. J. Kim, “Topical diphencyprone as an effective treatment for cutaneous metastatic melanoma,” Annals of Dermatology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 373–375, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. D. L. Damian, R. P. M. Saw, and J. F. Thompson, “Topical immunotherapy with diphencyprone for in transit and cutaneously metastatic melanoma,” Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 109, no. 4, pp. 308–313, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. I. Savarese, F. Papi, A. D'Errico et al., “Acral lentiginous melanoma treated with topical imiquimod cream: possible cooperation between drug and tumour cells,” Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 27–30, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. L. B. Mills, L. J. Mordan, H. L. Roth, E. E. Winger, and W. L. Epstein, “Treatment of severe atopic dermatitis by topical immune modulation using dinitrochlorobenzene,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 687–689, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. P. V. Harrison, J. Latona, and M. Jovanovic, “Alopecia totalis and topical mustine,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 129, no. 4, article 514, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. I. Ahmed and J. Berth-Jones, “Imiquimod: a novel treatment for lentigo maligna,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 143, no. 4, pp. 843–845, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. N. Bangsgaard and L. Skov, “Chronic genital ulceration due to herpes simplex infection treated successfully with imiquimod,” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 202–203, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. K. E. Mark, L. Corey, T.-C. Meng et al., “Topical resiquimod 0.01% gel decreases herpes simplex virus type 2 genital shedding: a randomized, controlled trial,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 195, no. 9, pp. 1324–1331, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. K. H. Fife, T.-C. Meng, D. G. Ferris, and P. Liu, “Effect of resiquimod 0.01% gel on lesion healing and viral shedding when applied to genital herpes lesions,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 477–482, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. G. Khullar, A. J. Kanwar, S. Singh, and D. Parsad, “Comparison of efficacy and safety profile of topical calcipotriol ointment in combination with NB-UVB vs. NB-UVB alone in the treatment of vitiligo: a 24-week prospective right–left comparative clinical trial,” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 925–932, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. A. A. Mohamed and S. F. El-Saman, “Light and electron microscopic studies of the effect of combined topical calcipotriol and PUVA therapy on patients with vitiligo,” The Egyptian Journal of Histology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 15–27, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. J. Q. del Rosso and G. K. Kim, “The rationale behind topical vitamin D analogs in the treatment of psoriasis. Where does topical calcitriol fit in?” Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 46–53, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. S. P. Hong, Y. Oh, M. Jung et al., “Topical calcitriol restores the impairment of epidermal permeability and antimicrobial barriers induced by corticosteroids,” The British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 162, no. 6, pp. 1251–1260, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. D. L. Damian, Y. J. Kim, K. M. Dixon, G. M. Halliday, A. Javeri, and R. S. Mason, “Topical calcitriol protects from UV-induced genetic damage but suppresses cutaneous immunity in humans,” Experimental Dermatology, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. e23–e30, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. G. Leone, A. Pacifico, P. Iacovelli, A. P. Vidolin, and M. Picardo, “Tacalcitol and narrow-band phototherapy in patients with vitiligo,” Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 200–205, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. T. Takekoshi, A. Asahina, M. Komine, and K. Tamaki, “Treatment of psoriasis vulgaris with narrow-band UVB and topical maxacalcitol,” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 375–376, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. M. Abe, T. Syuto, M. Hasegawa, Y. Yokoyama, and O. Ishikawa, “Clinical usefulness of a supplementary cyclosporin administration with a topical application of maxacalcitol ointment for patients with moderate psoriasis vulgaris,” The Journal of Dermatology, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 197–201, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. K. Raza, P. Negi, S. Takyar, A. Shukla, B. Amarji, and O. P. Katare, “Novel dithranol phospholipid microemulsion for topical application: development, characterization and percutaneous absorption studies,” Journal of Microencapsulation, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 190–199, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. R. Agarwal, A. Saraswat, I. Kaur, O. P. Katare, and B. Kumar, “A novel liposomal formulation of dithranol for psoriasis: preliminary results,” The Journal of Dermatology, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 529–532, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J. Thomas, S. Kandhari, C. Oberoi, E. Jayaseelan, and K. Yogi Raj, “A double-blind randomized multicentre controlled study of topical 0.05% clobetasol propionate with 2.5% zinc sulphate preparation,” Indian Journal of Dermatology Venereology and Leprology, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 135–137, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  92. M. Jovanović, P. Boża, D. Karadaglić et al., “Contact sensitivity in patients with psoriasis in Vojvodina,” International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, vol. 148, no. 4, pp. 311–320, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. F. Dalgard, U. Gieler, J. Ø. Holm, E. Bjertness, and S. Hauser, “Self-esteem and body satisfaction among late adolescents with acne: results from a population survey,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 746–751, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. E. Turan-Vural, B. T. Acar, and S. Acar, “The efficacy of topical interferon alpha 2b treatment in refractory vernal keratoconjunctivitis,” Ocular Immunology and Inflammation, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 125–129, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. V. Huerva and I. Mangues, “Treatment of conjunctival squamous neoplasias with interferon alpha 2b,” Journal Francais d'Ophtalmologie, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 317–325, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus