Figure 2: Immunohistochemistry for macrophages, T-cells, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Representative photomicrographs (×100) of immunohistochemistry for macrophages (a)–(c), T-cells (d)–(f), and cellular proliferation (g)–(i). (a, d, g) SHAM groups. In the IRI group, an increased number of macrophages (b) and T-cells (e) were observed infiltrating the renal interstitium. Cellular proliferation activity was also markedly enhanced in the IRI group (h). VPA treatment significantly attenuated the number of mononuclear inflammatory cells and proliferative activity in the IRI model (c, f, i). Graph presenting the quantification of macrophages (j), T-cells (k), and PCNA (l).   versus SHAM and IRI + VPA.