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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 6285620, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6285620
Review Article

Impact of Dental Implant Surface Modifications on Osseointegration

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
2Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, University of Zurich, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland
3Department of Oral Surgery, Heinrich Heine University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
4Private Practice, 9900 Lienz, Austria

Received 28 December 2015; Revised 22 May 2016; Accepted 6 June 2016

Academic Editor: Shinji Kuroda

Copyright © 2016 Ralf Smeets et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective. The aim of this paper is to review different surface modifications of dental implants and their effect on osseointegration. Common marketed as well as experimental surface modifications are discussed. Discussion. The major challenge for contemporary dental implantologists is to provide oral rehabilitation to patients with healthy bone conditions asking for rapid loading protocols or to patients with quantitatively or qualitatively compromised bone. These charging conditions require advances in implant surface design. The elucidation of bone healing physiology has driven investigators to engineer implant surfaces that closely mimic natural bone characteristics. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of surface modifications that beneficially alter the topography, hydrophilicity, and outer coating of dental implants in order to enhance osseointegration in healthy as well as in compromised bone. In the first part, this paper discusses dental implants that have been successfully used for a number of years focusing on sandblasting, acid-etching, and hydrophilic surface textures. Hereafter, new techniques like Discrete Crystalline Deposition, laser ablation, and surface coatings with proteins, drugs, or growth factors are presented. Conclusion. Major advancements have been made in developing novel surfaces of dental implants. These innovations set the stage for rehabilitating patients with high success and predictable survival rates even in challenging conditions.