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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 6427681, 10 pages
Research Article

In Vitro Cytokine Expression and In Vivo Healing and Inflammatory Response to a Collagen-Coated Synthetic Bone Filler

1Nobil Bio Ricerche S.r.l., Via Valcastellana 26, 14037 Portacomaro, Italy
2Department of Clinico-Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Pavia, P.le Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy

Received 6 January 2016; Revised 8 March 2016; Accepted 27 March 2016

Academic Editor: Hélder A. Santos

Copyright © 2016 Daniele Bollati et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The goal of the present work was to investigate the relationship between in vivo healing and inflammatory response and in vitro cytokine expression by macrophages of a synthetic bone filler (25% hydroxylapatite-75% β-tricalcium phosphate) bearing a surface nanolayer of collagen. A clinically accepted, state-of-the-art xenograft material was used as a “negative control,” that is, as a material that provides the correct clinical response for the intended use. In vitro data show that both materials exert a very low stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages, and this was confirmed by the very mild inflammatory response detected in in vivo tests of local response in a rabbit model. Also, in vitro findings suggest a different mechanism of healing for the test and the control material, with a higher regenerative activity for the synthetic, resorbable filler, as confirmed by in vivo observation and literature reports. Thus, the simple in vitro model adopted provides a reasonable forecast of in vivo results, suggesting that new product development can be guided by in vitro tuning of cell-materials interactions.