Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 6492597, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6492597
Review Article

Achilles Tendinopathy: Current Concepts about the Basic Science and Clinical Treatments

Sports Medicine Center of Fudan University, Department of Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai 200040, China

Received 30 June 2016; Accepted 20 September 2016

Academic Editor: Jiang Du

Copyright © 2016 Hong-Yun Li and Ying-Hui Hua. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Achilles tendinopathy is one of the most frequently ankle and foot overuse injuries, which is a clinical syndrome characterized by the combination of pain, swelling, and impaired performance. The two main categories of Achilles tendinopathy are classified according to anatomical location and broadly include insertional and noninsertional tendinopathy. The etiology of Achilles tendinopathy is multifactorial including both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Failed healing response and degenerative changes were found in the tendon. The failed healing response includes three different and continuous stages (reactive tendinopathy, tendon disrepair, and degenerative tendinopathy). The histological studies have demonstrated an increased number of tenocytes and concentration of glycosaminoglycans in the ground substance, disorganization and fragmentation of the collagen, and neovascularization. There are variable conservative and surgical treatment options for Achilles tendinopathy. However, there has not been a gold standard of these treatments because of the controversial clinical results between various studies. In the future, new level I researches will be needed to prove the effect of these treatment options.