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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 7261960, 6 pages
Research Article

Effects of Erythropoietin Administration on Adrenal Glands of Landrace/Large White Pigs after Ventricular Fibrillation

1Department of Surgery, Section of Pathology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, 09100 Sardinia, Italy
2ELPEN Experimental Center, Athens, Greece
3Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
4Neonatal Department, Aretaieio Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
5European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus

Received 19 February 2016; Revised 13 June 2016; Accepted 21 June 2016

Academic Editor: Oreste Gualillo

Copyright © 2016 Armando Faa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Aim. To evaluate the effects of erythropoietin administration on the adrenal glands in a swine model of ventricular fibrillation and resuscitation. Methods. Ventricular fibrillation was induced via pacing wire forwarded into the right ventricle in 20 female Landrace/Large White pigs, allocated into 2 groups: experimental group treated with bolus dose of erythropoietin (EPO) and control group which received normal saline. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed immediately after drug administration as per the 2010 European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines for Advanced Life Support (ALS) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or death. Animals who achieved ROSC were monitored, mechanically ventilated, extubated, observed, and euthanized. At necroscopy, adrenal glands samples were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and routinely processed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results. Oedema and apoptosis were the most frequent histological changes and were detected in all animals in the adrenal cortex and in the medulla. Mild and focal endothelial lesions were also detected. A marked interindividual variability in the degree of the intensity of apoptosis and oedema at cortical and medullary level was observed within groups. Comparing the two groups, higher levels of pathological changes were detected in the control group. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding the endothelial changes. Conclusions. In animals exposed to ventricular fibrillation, EPO treatment has protective effects on the adrenal gland.