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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 7574843, 15 pages
Research Article

In Vivo and In Vitro Genotoxic and Epigenetic Effects of Two Types of Cola Beverages and Caffeine: A Multiassay Approach

1Department of Genetics, University of Córdoba, Rabanales Campus, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
2Institute of Veterinary Genetics (IGEVET), Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, UNLP-CONICET, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata, Argentina

Received 11 March 2016; Revised 14 May 2016; Accepted 5 June 2016

Academic Editor: Pravin K. Naoghare

Copyright © 2016 Marcos Mateo-Fernández et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of this work was to assess the biological and food safety of two different beverages: Classic Coca Cola (CCC) and Caffeine-Free Coca Cola (CFCC). To this end, we determined the genotoxicological and biological effects of different doses of lyophilised CCC and CFCC and Caffeine (CAF), the main distinctive constituent. Their toxic/antitoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic, and chronic toxicity (lifespan assay) effects were determined in vivo using the Drosophila model. Their cytotoxic activities were determined using the HL-60 in vitro cancer model. In addition, clastogenic DNA toxicity was measured using internucleosomal fragmentation and SCGE assays. Their epigenetic effects were assessed on the HL-60 methylation status using some repetitive elements. The experimental results showed a slight chemopreventive effect of the two cola beverages against HL-60 leukaemia cells, probably mediated by nonapoptotic mechanisms. Finally, CCC and CAF induced a global genome hypomethylation evaluated in LINE-1 and Alu M1 repetitive elements. Overall, we demonstrated for the first time the safety of this famous beverage in in vivo and in vitro models.