Table 3: Reproducibility of the biofilm models utilised, as analysed by different analytical, imaging, and microbiological assays.

ModelStrainAnalysis methodAverageStd Dev

Simple biofilm modelAntibiotic-resistant
P. aeruginosa NCTC 8506
Elemental analysis (values minus blank filter disc elemental analysis)2426.8 µM Mg2+3.2 µM
36.2 µM K+7.1 µM
171.9 µM Ca2+27.0 µM
Antibiotic-resistant
P. aeruginosa NCTC 13437
Live/dead image analysis by pixilation1925.6 µm thick8.2 µm

Simulated wound polymicrobial biofilm modelS. aureus,
K. pneumoniae,
24-hour control
Confocal imaging of maximum depth159.74 µm thick2.37 µm
Total viable counts39.4 × 108 cfu
S. aureus
2.0 × 108 cfu
7.7 × 109 cfu
K. pneumoniae
3.2 × 109 cfu