Table 2: Main mechanism of gastric cancer induced by each kind of heavy metal.

Heavy metals Main mechanismReference

Cd() Disrupt the stomach mucosal barrier[1921, 23, 24, 2630]
() DNA damage via ROS
() Ineffective DNA repair
() Alter catalase activity
() Accelerate cancer development

As() Cell damage[23, 24, 3033]
() Inhibit DNA repair
() Epigenome
() Enhanced cancer development by inducing overexpressing of miRNAs

Hg() DNA damage[24, 28, 3436]
() Chromosomal aberration
() Induce immune dysfunction

Pb() DNA damage via ROS[2224, 28, 30, 3739]
() Ineffective DNA repair and inhibiting DNA repair with UItraviolet rays
() Promote tumorigenesis via Il-8
() Change catalase activity
() Enhanced cancer development by inducing overexpressing of miRNAs

Cr() DNA lesion[23, 24, 32, 33, 4042]
() Gene abnormalities
() Promote cancer cell migration and invasion