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Figure 2: Isoflurane, but not desflurane, decreased phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β in mice hippocampus. (a) Immediately after multiple anesthesia with 2% isoflurane, p-Akt (ser473), t-Akt, p-GSK3β (ser9), t-GSK3β, and β-actin in the total protein extracted from mice hippocampus tissues were determined by western blot analysis. (b) The histogram shows p-Akt (ser473)/β-actin ratio in (a). (c) The histogram shows t-Akt/β-actin ratio in (a). (d) The histogram shows p-GSK3β(ser9)/β-actin ratio in (a). (e) The histogram shows t-GSK3β/β-actin ratio in (a). (f) Immediately after multiple anesthesia with 8% desflurane, p-Akt (ser473), t-Akt, p-GSK3β (ser9), t-GSK3β, and β-actin in the total protein extracted from mice hippocampus tissues were determined by western blot analysis. (g) The histogram shows p-Akt (ser473)/β-actin ratio in (f). (h) The histogram shows t-Akt/β-actin ratio in (f). (i) The histogram shows p-GSK3β (ser9)/β-actin ratio in (f). (j) The histogram shows t-GSK3β/β-actin ratio in (f). All data are presented as mean ± SEM, and compared with control group, and for each group.