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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 8106067, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8106067
Research Article

Involvement of the Nonneuronal Cholinergic System in Bone Remodeling in Rat Midpalatal Suture after Rapid Maxillary Expansion

1Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China
2Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Shandong University, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, Jinan 250012, China
3College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China
4Institute of Dental Research, Beijing Stomatological Hospital and School of Stomatology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China

Received 23 February 2016; Revised 4 May 2016; Accepted 23 May 2016

Academic Editor: Li Wu Zheng

Copyright © 2016 Xiaoxia Che et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Few studies sought to analyze the expression and function of the nonneuronal acetylcholine system in bone remodeling in vivo due to the lack of suitable models. We established a rat maxilla expansion model in which the midline palatine suture of the rat was rapidly expanded under mechanical force application, inducing tissue remodeling and new bone formation, which could be a suitable model to investigate the role of the nonneuronal acetylcholine system in bone remodeling in vivo. During the expansion, the expression pattern changes of the nonneuronal cholinergic system components and the mRNA levels of OPG/RANKL were detected by immunohistochemistry or real-time PCR. The value of the RANKL/OPG ratio significantly increased after 1 day of expansion, indicating dominant bone resorption induced by the mechanical stimulation; however after 3 days of expansion, the value of the RANKL/OPG ratio significantly decreased, suggesting a dominant role of the subsequent bone formation process. Increasing expression of Ach was detected after 3 days of expansion which indicated that ACh might play a role in bone formation. The mRNA expression levels of other components also showed observable changes during the expansion which confirmed the involvement of the nonneuronal cholinergic system in the process of bone remodeling in vivo. Further researches are still needed to figure out the detailed functions of the nonneuronal cholinergic system and its components.