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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8212063, 10 pages
Review Article

Relation between Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Cardiovascular Events and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Xueyuanxi Road, No. 109, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000, China

Received 20 May 2016; Revised 27 September 2016; Accepted 14 November 2016

Academic Editor: Gui-shuang Ying

Copyright © 2016 Jie Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Data on the association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cardiovascular disease and mortality are conflicting. The purpose of this report is to conduct a systematic review to better understand the role of AMD as a risk factor for CVD events and mortality. We searched Medline (Ovid) and Embase (Ovid) for trials published from 1980 to 2015. We included 20 cohort studies that reported relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for the association of AMD and cardiovascular events and mortality, involving 29,964,334 participants. In a random-effects model, the adjusted RR (95% confidence interval [CI]) associated with AMD was 1.08 (1.00–1.117) for all-cause mortality (8 studies) and 1.18 (0.98–1.43) for cardiovascular disease mortality (5 studies). The pooled RR (95% CI) was 1.17 (0.94–1.45) for coronary heart disease (CHD; 3 studies) and 1.13 (0.93–1.36) for stroke (8 studies). Findings from this systematic review support that AMD is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. The evidence that AMD predicts incident CVD events or CVD mortality remains inclusive and warrants further study in the future.