Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 8531958, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8531958
Review Article

The Vulnerability of Vessels Involved in the Role of Embolism and Hypoperfusion in the Mechanisms of Ischemic Cerebrovascular Diseases

1Department of Neurology and Central Laboratory of Brain Diseases, Weihai Central Hospital, School of Medicine, Qingdao University, Shandong 264400, China
2Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, School of Medicine, Qingdao University, No. 5 Donghai Middle Road, Qingdao 266071, China

Received 2 February 2016; Accepted 3 May 2016

Academic Editor: Gelin Xu

Copyright © 2016 Yong Peng Yu and Lan Tan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Kern, W. Steinke, M. Daffertshofer, R. Prager, and M. Hennerici, “Stroke recurrences in patients with symptomatic vs asymptomatic middle cerebral artery disease,” Neurology, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 859–864, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Y. Zhang, S. Wu, Z. Jia et al., “The relationship of asymptomatic intracranial artery stenosis and Framingham stroke risk profile in a Northern Chinese industrial city,” Neurological Research, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 359–365, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. M. Mughal, M. K. Khan, J. K. Demarco, A. Majid, F. Shamoun, and G. S. Abela, “Symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery plaque,” Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1315–1330, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. Dieleman, A. G. van der Kolk, S. J. van Veluw et al., “Patterns of intracranial vessel wall changes in relation to ischemic infarcts,” Neurology, vol. 83, no. 15, pp. 1316–1320, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. Gao, Z. Zhang, W. Yu, Z. Zhang, and Y. Wang, “Atherosclerotic carotid vulnerable plaque and subsequent stroke: a high-resolution MRI study,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 345–352, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Y. Akiyama, H. Yoshimoto, K. Nagatsuka et al., “Analysis of factors related to microemboli in cases with internal carotid artery stenosis,” No Shinkei Geka, vol. 25, pp. 707–712, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  7. L. G. Svensson, M. F. Robinson, J. Esser, V. U. Fritz, and L. J. Lenten, “Influence of anatomic origin on intracranial distribution of micro-emboli in the baboon,” Stroke, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1198–1202, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Gucuyener, N. Uzuner, S. Ozkan, O. Ozdemir, and G. Ozdemir, “Micro embolic signals in patients with cerebral ischaemic events,” Neurology India, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 225–230, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Siebler, M. Sitzer, G. Rose, and H. Steinmetz, “Microembolism in carotid artery disease,” Echocardiography, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 529–535, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. Zuromskis, R. Wetterholm, J. F. Lindqvist et al., “Prevalence of micro-emboli in symptomatic high grade carotid artery disease: a transcranial doppler study,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 534–540, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Goertler, T. Blaser, S. Krueger, G. Lutze, and C.-W. Wallesch, “Acetylsalicylic acid and microembolic events detected by transcranial Doppler in symptomatic arterial stenoses,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 324–329, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Valton, V. Larrue, P. Arrue, G. Geraud, and A. Bes, “Asymptomatic cerebral embolic signals in patients with carotid stenosis. Correlation with appearance of plaque ulceration on angiography,” Stroke, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 813–815, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. Telman, E. Kouperberg, A. Hlebtovsky, E. Sprecher, A. Hoffman, and R. Beyar, “Determinants of micro-embolic signals in patients with atherosclerotic plaques of the internal carotid artery,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 143–147, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Kobayashi, K. Ogasawara, T. Inoue, H. Saito, Y. Suga, and A. Ogawa, “Endarterectomy for mild cervical carotid artery stenosis in patients with ischemic stroke events refractory to medical treatment—two case reports,” Neurologia Medico-Chirurgica, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 211–215, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. Iemolo, A. Martiniuk, D. A. Steinman, and J. D. Spence, “Sex differences in carotid plaque and stenosis,” Stroke, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 477–481, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. J. Sun, A. X. Zhuang, Q. H. Zeng et al., “A study of microemboli monitoring of atherosclerotic thrombotic cerebral infarction and artery stenosis,” Genetics and Molecular Research, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 6734–6745, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Chida, K. Ogasawara, H. Kuroda et al., “Central benzodiazepine receptor binding potential and CBF images on SPECT correlate with oxygen extraction fraction images on PET in the cerebral cortex with unilateral major cerebral artery occlusive disease,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 511–518, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. W. Kojiro, N. Hiroshi, O. Hidenori et al., “A case of TIA due to traumatic internal carotid artery dissection diagnosed using carotid ultrasonography,” Neurosonology, vol. 23, no. 2-3, pp. 120–123, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. D. Georgiadis, M. Arnold, H. C. von Buedingen et al., “Aspirin vs anticoagulation in carotid artery dissection: a study of 298 patients,” Neurology, vol. 72, no. 21, pp. 1810–1815, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. W.-Y. Lin, Y.-C. Chang, C.-J. Ho, and C.-C. Huang, “Ischemic preconditioning reduces neurovascular damage after hypoxia-ischemia via the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 in neonatal brain,” Stroke, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 162–169, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. E. Wever, T. P. Menting, M. Rovers et al., “Ischemic preconditioning in the animal kidney, a systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 2, article e32296, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Ogata, C. Yutani, R. Otsubo et al., “Heart and vessel pathology underlying brain infarction in 142 stroke patients,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 770–781, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Moriwaki, M. Matsumoto, K. Hashikawa et al., “Hemodynamic aspect of cerebral watershed infarction: assessment of perfusion reserve using iodine-123-iodoamphetamine SPECT,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1556–1562, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. Strozyk, D. W. Dickson, R. B. Lipton et al., “Contribution of vascular pathology to the clinical expression of dementia,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1710–1720, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. Okamoto, M. Ihara, Y. Fujita, H. Ito, R. Takahashi, and H. Tomimoto, “Cortical microinfarcts in Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia,” NeuroReport, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 990–996, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Moran, T. G. Phan, and V. K. Srikanth, “Cerebral small vessel disease: a review of clinical, radiological, and histopathological phenotypes,” International Journal of Stroke, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 36–46, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Arboix, L. Blanco-Rojas, and J. L. Martí-Vilalta, “Advancements in understanding the mechanisms of symptomatic lacunar ischemic stroke: translation of knowledge to prevention strategies,” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 261–276, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Arboix, S. Bechich, M. Oliveres, L. García-Eroles, J. Massons, and C. Targa, “Ischemic stroke of unusual cause: clinical features, etiology and outcome,” European Journal of Neurology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 133–139, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Arboix and J. Alió, “Cardioembolic stroke: clinical features, specific cardiac disorders and prognosis,” Current Cardiology Reviews, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 150–161, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. X. Wang, D. C. Jackson, T. Varghese et al., “Correlation of cognitive function with ultrasound strain indices in carotid plaque,” Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 78–89, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Arboix, N. Cabeza, L. García-Eroles et al., “Relevance of transient ischemic attack to early neurological recovery after nonlacunar ischemic stroke,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 304–311, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Persoon, L. J. Kappelle, and C. J. M. Klijn, “Limb-shaking transient ischaemic attacks in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion: a case-control study,” Brain, vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 915–922, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus