Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 9645705, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9645705
Research Article

Postocclusive Hyperemia Measured with Laser Doppler Flowmetry and Transcutaneous Oxygen Tension in the Diagnosis of Primary Raynaud’s Phenomenon: A Prospective, Controlled Study

1Department of Angiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 8 Skawińska Street, 31-066 Krakow, Poland
2Department of Anatomy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 12 Kopernika Street, 31-034 Krakow, Poland
3Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Institute of Dentistry, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 4 Montelupich Street, 31-155 Krakow, Poland

Received 19 July 2016; Accepted 21 November 2016

Academic Editor: Francesco Del Galdo

Copyright © 2016 Paweł Maga et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Raynaud, On Local Asphyxia and Symmetrical Gangrene of the Extremities, E.Leclerc Paris, Paris, France, 1862.
  2. N. A. Flavahan, S. Flavahan, S. Mitra, and M. A. Chotani, “The vasculopathy of Raynaud's phenomenon and scleroderma,” Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 275–291, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. Fraenkel, “Raynaud's phenomenon: epidemiology and risk factors,” Current Rheumatology Reports, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 123–128, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. F. Boin and F. M. Wigley, “Understanding, assessing and treating Raynaud's phenomenon,” Current Opinion in Rheumatology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 752–760, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. T. Valdovinos and G. J. Landry, “Raynaud syndrome,” Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 241–246, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. E. Maverakis, F. Patel, D. G. Kronenberg et al., “International consensus criteria for the diagnosis of Raynaud's phenomenon,” Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 48-49, pp. 60–65, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. F. M. Wigley, “Clinical practice. Raynaud’s phenomenon,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 13, pp. 1001–1008, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. T. Tenland, E. G. Salerud, G. E. Nilsson et al., “Spatial and temporal variations in human skin blood flow,” International Journal of Microcirculation. Clinical and Experimental, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 81–90, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  9. R. De Angelis, F. Salaffi, and W. Grassi, “Health-related quality of life in primary raynaud phenomenon,” Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 206–210, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Hughes, A. Snapir, J. Wilkinson, D. Snapir, F. M. Wigley, and A. L. Herrick, “Prediction and impact of attacks of Raynaud's phenomenon, as judged by patient perception,” Rheumatology, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 1443–1447, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. Kimura, S. Yoshizaki, N. Tsushima, M. Sano, and G. Hanai, “Buerger's colour,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 77, no. 11, pp. 1299–1301, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Yamamoto, S. Iwase, T. Mano, and S. Shionoya, “Muscle sympathetic outflow in Buerger's disease,” Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 67–75, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. Lee, J. Sarkozi, A. A. Bookman, E. C. Keystone, and S. K. Armstrong, “Digital blood flow and nailfold capillary microscopy in Raynaud's phenomenon,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 564–569, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. Mannarino, L. Pasqualini, F. Fedeli, V. Scricciolo, and S. Innocente, “Nailfold capillaroscopy in the screening and diagnosis of Raynaud's phenomenon,” Angiology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 37–42, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. E. Anderson, T. L. Moore, M. Lunt, and A. L. Herrick, “The 'distal-dorsal difference': a thermographic parameter by which to differentiate between primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon,” Rheumatology, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 533–538, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. D. Pauling, V. Flower, J. A. Shipley, N. D. Harris, and N. J. McHugh, “Influence of the cold challenge on the discriminatory capacity of the digital distal-dorsal difference in the thermographic assessment of Raynaud's phenomenon,” Microvascular Research, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 364–368, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Vayssairat, N. Baudot, N. Blaison et al., “Limitations of cold tests in Raynaud's disease,” Journal des Maladies Vasculaires, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 82–85, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  18. H. Cai, H. Pettersson, H. Rohman, S.-E. Larsson, and P. Å. Öberg, “A new single-fibre laser Doppler flowmeter based on digital signal processing,” Medical Engineering and Physics, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 523–528, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. Del Bianco, B. Magini, G. Muscarella, P. Cappugi, and T. Lotti, “Raynaud's phenomenon (primary or secondary to systemic sclerosis). The usefulness of laser-doppler flowmetry in the diagnosis,” International Angiology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 307–313, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. A. Oberg, T. Tenland, and G. E. Nilsson, “Laser-Doppler flowmetry—a non-invasive and continuous method for blood flow evaluation in microvascular studies,” Acta Medica Scandinavica, vol. 216, no. 687, pp. 17–24, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Z. Stoyneva, “Laser Doppler-recorded venoarteriolar reflex in Raynaud's phenomenon,” Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical, vol. 116, no. 1-2, pp. 62–68, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. Wollersheim, J. Reyenga, and T. Thien, “Postocclusive reactive hyperemia of fingertips, monitored by laser doppler velocimetry in the diagnosis of Raynaud's phenomenon,” Microvascular Research, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 286–295, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. J. Lim, S. R. Kwon, K.-H. Jung, K. Joo, S.-G. Park, and W. Park, “Digital thermography of the fingers and toes in Raynaud's phenomenon,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 502–506, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. O. Schlager, M. E. Gschwandtner, K. Herberg et al., “Correlation of infrared thermography and skin perfusion in Raynaud patients and in healthy controls,” Microvascular Research, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 54–57, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Inaba, M. Ariizumi, T. Furuno, M. Tabata, and A. Okada, “Changes in the forearm tcPO2 following the cold water immersion test,” Sangyo Igaku, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 279–282, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. L. Silverstein, V. D. Steen, T. A. Medsger Jr., and V. Falanga, “Cutaneous hypoxia in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma),” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 124, no. 9, pp. 1379–1382, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. Wollersheim and T. Thien, “Transcutaneous pO2 measurements in Raynaud's phenomenon. Value and limitations,” International Journal of Microcirculation, Clinical and Experimental, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 357–366, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. Kanetaka, T. Komiyama, A. Onozuka, T. Miyata, and H. Shigematsu, “Laser Doppler skin perfusion pressure in the assessment of Raynaud's phenomenon,” European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 414–416, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. O. Bongard and B. Fagrell, “Variations in laser Doppler flux and flow motion patterns in the dorsal skin of the human foot,” Microvascular Research, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 212–222, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. A. Nilsson, T. Tenland, and P. Å. Öberg, “Evaluation of a laser doppler flowmeter foi measurement of tissue blood flow,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 597–604, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Sundberg, “Acute effects and long-term variations in skin blood flow measured with laser Doppler flowmetry,” Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 341–345, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. Tenland, E. G. Salerud, G. E. Nilsson, and P. A. Oberg, “Spatial and temporal variations in human skin blood flow,” International journal of microcirculation, clinical and experimental/sponsored by the European Society for Microcirculation, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 81–90, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. E. Almond, D. P. Jones, and E. D. Cooke, “Noninvasive measurement of the human peripheral circulation: relationship between laser Doppler flowmeter and photoplethysmograph signals from the finger,” Angiology, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 819–829, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. Yosipovitch, J. Schneiderman, D. J. van Dyk, A. Chetrit, G. Milo, and G. Boner, “Impairment of the postural venoarteriolar response in young type 1 diabetic patients. A study by laser Doppler flowmetry,” Angiology, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 687–691, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. L. Herrick and S. Clark, “Quantifying digital vascular disease in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon and systemic sclerosis,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 70–78, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. J. U. Correa, L. E. C. Andrade, and C. Kayser, “Comparison of laser Doppler imaging, fingertip lacticemy test, and nailfold capillaroscopy for assessment of digital microcirculation in systemic sclerosis,” Arthritis Research and Therapy, vol. 12, article R157, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. K. Murray, T. L. Moore, J. B. Manning, C. Taylor, C. E. M. Griffiths, and A. L. Herrick, “Noninvasive imaging techniques in the assessment of scleroderma spectrum disorders,” Arthritis Care and Research, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 1103–1111, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. E. Rosato, F. Borghese, S. Pisarri, and F. Salsano, “Laser Doppler perfusion imaging is useful in the study of Raynaud's phenomenon and improves the capillaroscopic diagnosis,” The Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 2257–2263, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Vayssairat, J. F. Mathieu, P. Priollet, P. Vellay, J. C. Pines, and E. Housset, “Transcutaneous measurement of partial oxygen pressure. A new functional exploratory method in vascular pathology,” Presse Medicale, vol. 13, no. 27, pp. 1683–1686, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. E. C. LeRoy and T. A. Medsger, “Raynaud's phenomenon: a proposal for classification,” Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 485–488, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  41. S. N. Lambova and U. Müller-Ladner, “The role of capillaroscopy in differentiation of primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon in rheumatic diseases: a review of the literature and two case reports,” Rheumatology International, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 1263–1271, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Bollinger and B. Fagrell, Clinical Capillaroscopy: A Guide for Its Use in Clinical Research and Practice, Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, 1990.
  43. W. J. Youden, “Index for rating diagnostic tests,” Cancer, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 32–35, 1950. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. P. Cooke and J. M. Marshall, “Mechanisms of Raynaud's disease,” Vascular Medicine, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 293–307, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. C. M. Edwards and J. M. Marshall, “Cutaneous vasodilator responses to sodium nitroprusside but not those to acetylcholine may be impaired in patients with Primary Raynaud's Disease,” Clinical Autonomic Research, vol. 9, pp. 35–35, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  46. S. J. Morris and A. C. Shore, “Skin blood flow responses to the iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside in man: possible mechanisms,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 496, no. 2, pp. 531–542, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. Kilbom and A. Wennmalm, “Endogenous prostaglandins as local regulators of blood flow in man: effect of indomethacin on reactive and functional hyperaemia,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 257, no. 1, pp. 109–121, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. Nowak and A. Wennmalm, “A study on the role of endogenous prostaglandins in the development of exercise-induced and post-occlusive hyperemia in human limbs,” Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 365–369, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. A. Knock, G. Terenghi, C. B. Bunker, H. A. Bull, P. M. Dowd, and J. M. Polak, “Characterization of endothelin-binding sites in human skin and their regulation in primary Raynaud's phenomenon and systemic sclerosis,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 73–78, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. R. Zamora, R. F. O'Brien, R. B. Rutherford, and J. V. Weil, “Serum endothelin-1 concentrations and cold provocation in primary Raynaud's phenomenon,” The Lancet, vol. 336, no. 8724, pp. 1144–1147, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. W. Bottomley and M. Goodfield, “A pathogenic role for endothelin in Raynaud's phenomenon?” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 74, no. 6, pp. 433–434, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. J. Easter and J. M. Marshall, “Contribution of prostanoids to endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in the digital circulation of women with primary Raynaud's disease,” Clinical Science, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 45–54, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. P. Cooke, M. A. Creager, P. J. Osmundson, and J. T. Shepherd, “Sex differences in control of cutaneous blood flow,” Circulation, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 1607–1615, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus