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BioMed Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 9710965, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9710965
Review Article

Management of Patient Care in Hemodialysis While Focusing on Cardiovascular Disease Events and the Atypical Role of Hyper- and/or Hypotension: A Systematic Review

1Discipline of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
2Chronic Kidney Disease Resource Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
3Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
4Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

Received 24 May 2016; Revised 8 August 2016; Accepted 6 September 2016

Academic Editor: Chang G. Park

Copyright © 2016 Amjad Khan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Hemodialysis related hemodynamic instability is a major but an underestimated issue. Moreover, cardiovascular events are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality associated with blood pressure in hemodialysis patients. However, there have been many controversies regarding the role and management of hyper- and/or hypotension during hemodialysis that needs to be addressed. Objective. To critically review the available published data on the atypical role of hyper- and/or hypotension in cardiovascular associated morbidity and mortality in patients on hemodialysis and to understand the discrepancies in this context. Methods. A comprehensive search of literature employing electronic as well as manual sources and screening 2783 papers published between Jan 1980 and Oct 2015 was conducted to collect, identify, and analyze relevant information through peer-reviewed research articles, systematic reviews, and other published works. The cardiovascular events, including accelerated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), stroke, heart failure, myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia, and stress induced myocardial dysfunction, leading to death were considered relevant. Results. A total of 23 published articles met the inclusion criteria and were included for in-depth review and analysis to finalize a comprehensive systematic review article. All the studies showed a significant association between the blood pressure and cardiovascular disease events in hemodialysis patients. Conclusions. Both intradialytic hypertension/hypotension episodes are major risk factors for cardiovascular mortality with a high percentage of probable causality; however, clinicians are faced with a dilemma on how to evaluate blood pressure and treat this condition.