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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 1609575, 16 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1609575
Review Article

New Insights into the Epigenetics of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

1Centre for Applied Molecular Biology, 87 West Canal Bank Road Thokar Niaz Baig, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
2Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan

Correspondence should be addressed to Amjad Ali; kp.ude.up@bmac.dajma

Received 26 August 2016; Accepted 17 January 2017; Published 19 March 2017

Academic Editor: Mario Scartozzi

Copyright © 2017 Braira Wahid et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most predominant malignancies with high fatality rate. This deadly cancer is rising at an alarming rate because it is quite resistant to radio- and chemotherapy. Different epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modifications, DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, and expression of noncoding RNAs drive the cell proliferation, invasion, metastasis, initiation, progression, and development of HCC. These epigenetic alterations because of potential reversibility open way towards the development of biomarkers and therapeutics. The contribution of these epigenetic changes to HCC development has not been thoroughly explored yet. Further research on HCC epigenetics is necessary to better understand novel molecular-targeted HCC treatment and prevention. This review highlights latest research progress and current updates regarding epigenetics of HCC, biomarker discovery, and future preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat the increasing risk of HCC.