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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 1623679, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1623679
Review Article

Clinical Applications of Immunotherapy Combination Methods and New Opportunities for the Future

Dr. A. Y. Ankara Oncology Research and Training Hospital, Ankara, Turkey

Correspondence should be addressed to Ece Esin; moc.liamg@niseece.rd

Received 7 April 2017; Accepted 19 June 2017; Published 7 August 2017

Academic Editor: Carmen Criscitiello

Copyright © 2017 Ece Esin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In the last decade, we have gained a deeper understanding of innate immune system. The mechanism of the continuous guarding of progressive mutations happening in a single cell was discovered and the production and the recognition of tumor associated antigens by the T-cells and elimination of numerous tumors by immune-editing were further understood. The new discoveries on immune mechanisms and its relation with carcinogenesis have led to development of a new class of drugs called immunotherapeutics. T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, programmed cell death protein 1, and programmed cell death protein ligand 1 are the classes drugs based on immunologic manipulation and are collectively known as the “checkpoint inhibitors.” Checkpoint inhibitors have shown remarkable antitumor efficacy in a broad spectrum of malignancies; however, the strongest and most durable immune responses do not last long and the more durable responses only occur in a small subset of patients. One of the solutions which have been put forth to overcome these challenges is combination strategies. Among the dual use of methods, a backbone with either PD-1 or PD-L1 antagonist drugs alongside with certain cytotoxic chemotherapies, radiation, targeted drugs, and novel checkpoint stimulators is the most promising approach and will be on stage in forthcoming years.