Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1903589, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1903589
Research Article

Socioeconomic Status, Frailty, and All-Cause Mortality in Korean Older Adults: A 3-Year Population-Based Prospective Study

College of Sport Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea

Correspondence should be addressed to Hyunsik Kang

Received 23 August 2017; Revised 1 November 2017; Accepted 20 November 2017; Published 14 December 2017

Academic Editor: Hynek Pikhart

Copyright © 2017 Jinkyung Cho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. M. Lantz, E. Golberstein, J. S. House, and J. Morenoff, “Socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors for mortality in a national 19-year prospective study of U.S. adults,” Social Science & Medicine, vol. 70, no. 10, pp. 1558–1566, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. K. Nordstrom, A. V. Diez Roux, R. Schulz, M. N. Haan, S. A. Jackson, and J. L. Balfour, “Socioeconomic position and incident mobility impairment in the Cardiovascular Health Study,” BMC Geriatrics, vol. 7, article 11, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. H. Flaskerud and C. R. Delilly, “Social determinants of health status,” Issues in Mental Health Nursing, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 494–497, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. Rask, E. O'Malley, and B. Druss, “Impact of socioeconomic, behavioral and clinical risk factors on mortality,” Journal of Public Health, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 231–238, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Stringhini, V. Rousson, B. Viswanathan, J. Gedeon, F. Paccaud, and P. Bovet, “Association of Socioeconomic status with overall and cause specific mortality in the republic of Seychelles: Results from a cohort study in the African region,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 7, Article ID e102858, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. A. Hope, M. N. Gong, C. Guerra, and H. Wunsch, “Frailty before critical illness and mortality for elderly medicare beneficiaries,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 1121–1128, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. P. Fried, C. M. Tangen, J. Walston et al., “Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype,” The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. M146–M156, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. Rockwood, X. Song, C. MacKnight et al., “A global clinical measure of fitness and frailty in elderly people,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 173, no. 5, pp. 489–495, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. C. Carey, K. E. Covinsky, L.-Y. Lui, C. Eng, L. P. Sands, and L. C. Walter, “Prediction of mortality in community-living frail elderly people with long-term care needs,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 68–75, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. O. Zaslavsky, S. Zelber-Sagi, S. L. Gray et al., “Comparison of Frailty Phenotypes for Prediction of Mortality, Incident Falls, and Hip Fracture in Older Women,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 1858–1862, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Gu, M. E. Dupre, J. Sautter, H. Zhu, Y. Liu, and Z. Yi, “Frailty and mortality among chinese at advanced ages,” Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 279–289, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Gu and Q. Feng, “Frailty still matters to health and survival in centenarians: The case of China Public health, nutrition and epidemiology,” BMC Geriatrics, vol. 15, no. 1, article no. 159, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H.-W. Jung, S.-W. Kim, S. Ahn et al., “Prevalence and outcomes of frailty in Korean elderly population: Comparisons of a multidimensional frailty index with two phenotype models,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 2, Article ID e87958, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. E. Ensrud, S. K. Ewing, B. C. Taylor et al., “Frailty and risk of falls, fracture, and mortality in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures,” The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 744–751, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. WHO, “World report on ageing and health, WHO, pp. 43-51, 2015”.
  16. Population Projections for Korea: 2010~2060 (Based on the 2010 Census), Korean National Statistical Office, 2012.
  17. H.-W. Jung, I.-Y. Jang, Y. S. Lee et al., “Prevalence of frailty and aging-related health conditions in older Koreans in rural communities: A cross-sectional analysis of the aging study of pyeongchang rural area,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 345–352, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. W. Roh, C. H. Hong, Y. Lee et al., “Participation in physical, social, and religious activity and risk of depression in the elderly: A community-based three-year longitudinal study in Korea,” PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 7, Article ID e0132838, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Hong, S. Kim, J. Yoo et al., “Slower gait speed predicts decline in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in community-dwelling elderly: 3-year prospective finding from Living Profiles of Older People Survey in Korea,” Journal of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 141–145, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. S. Lauer, E. H. Blackstone, J. B. Young, and E. J. Topol, “Cause of death in clinical research: Time for a reassessment?” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 618–620, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. J. Duncan, M. C. Daly, P. McDonough, and D. R. Williams, “Optimal indicators of socioeconomic status for health research,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 1151–1157, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Korean National Statistical Office. Population Statistics., Daejeon, Korean National Statistical Office, http://kostat.go.kr/portal/eng/pressReleases/6/1/index.board.
  23. J. Y. Oh, Y. J. Yang, B. S. Kim, and J. H. Kang, “Validity and reliability of korean version of international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) short form,” Korean Journal of Family Medicine, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 532–541, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  24. B. M. Posner, A. M. Jette, K. W. Smith, and D. R. Miller, “Nutrition and health risks in the elderly: The nutrition screening initiative,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 83, no. 7, pp. 972–978, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. Y. Lee, K. U. Lee, J. H. Lee et al., “A normative study of the CERAD neuropsychological assessment battery in the Korean elderly,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 72–81, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. Lee, J. Kim, E. S. Han, M. Ryu, Y. Cho, and S. Chae, “Frailty and body mass index as predictors of 3-year mortality in older adults living in the community,” Gerontology, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 475–482, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S.-W. Kim, H.-S. Han, H.-W. Jung et al., “Multidimensional frailty score for the prediction of postoperative mortality risk,” JAMA Surgery, vol. 149, no. 7, pp. 633–640, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Cesari, M. Pahor, and F. Lauretani, “Skeletal muscle and mortality results from the InCHIANTI study,” The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 377–384, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. N. Ommundsen, T. B. Wyller, A. Nesbakken et al., “Frailty is an independent predictor of survival in older patients with colorectal cancer,” The Oncologist, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1268–1275, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. N. Ekerstad, E. Swahn, M. Janzon et al., “Frailty is independently associated with 1-year mortality for elderly patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction,” European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1216–1224, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. F. Cacciatore, G. Testa, G. Galizia et al., “Clinical frailty and long-term mortality in elderly subjects with diabetes,” Acta Diabetologica, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 251–260, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. Le Maguet, A. Roquilly, S. Lasocki et al., “Prevalence and impact of frailty on mortality in elderly ICU patients: A prospective, multicenter, observational study,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 674–682, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S.-Y. Lee, D. H. Yang, E. Hwang et al., “The Prevalence, Association, and Clinical Outcomes of Frailty in Maintenance Dialysis Patients,” Journal of Renal Nutrition, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 106–112, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Shin, Y. Choi, S. G. Lee, W. Kim, E.-C. Park, and T. H. Kim, “Relationship between socioeconomic status and mortality after femur fracture in a Korean population aged 65 years and older Nationwide retrospective cohort study,” Medicine (United States), vol. 95, no. 49, p. e5311, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Shin, K. H. Cho, Y. Choi, S. G. Lee, E.-C. Park, and S.-I. Jang, “Combined effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on mortality in patients with newly diagnosed dyslipidemia: A nationwide Korean cohort study from 2002 to 2013,” Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 207–215, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. K. Andrew, A. B. Mitnitski, and K. Rockwood, “Social vulnerability, frailty and mortality in elderly people,” PLoS ONE, vol. 3, no. 5, Article ID e2232, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. H. Saydah, G. Imperatore, and G. L. Beckles, “Socioeconomic status and mortality: Contribution of health care access and psychological distress among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 49–55, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Rawshani, A.-M. Svensson, B. Zethelius, B. Eliasson, A. Rosengren, and S. Gudbjörnsdottir, “Association between socioeconomic status and mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes,” JAMA Internal Medicine, vol. 176, no. 8, pp. 1146–1154, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C.-M. Chang, Y.-C. Su, N.-S. Lai et al., “The Combined Effect of Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status on Cancer Survival Rates,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 8, Article ID e44325, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. Gu, F. Yang, and J. Sautter, “Socioeconomic status as a moderator between frailty and mortality at old ages,” BMC Geriatrics, vol. 16, no. 1, article 151, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. N. Lund Jensen, H. S. Pedersen, M. Vestergaard, S. Mercer, C. Glümer, and A. Prior, “The impact of socioeconomic status and multimorbidity on mortality: a population-based cohort study,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. Volume 9, pp. 279–289, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. S. S. Bassuk, L. F. Berkman, and B. C. Amick III, “Socioeconomic status and mortality among the elderly: Findings from four US communities,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 155, no. 6, pp. 520–533, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. I. Barzilay, C. Blaum, T. Moore et al., “Insulin resistance and inflammation as precursors of frailty: The cardiovascular health study,” JAMA Internal Medicine, vol. 167, no. 7, pp. 635–641, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. R. S. Cooper, “Social inequality, ethnicity and cardiovascular disease,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. S48–S52, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. D. Albano, E. Ward, A. Jemal et al., “Cancer mortality in the United States by education level and race,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 99, no. 18, pp. 1384–1394, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Freeman, S. Tyrovolas, A. Koyanagi et al., “The role of socio-economic status in depression: Results from the COURAGE (aging survey in Europe),” BMC Public Health, vol. 16, no. 1, article no. 1098, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. P. J. Brown, S. P. Roose, R. Fieo et al., “Frailty and depression in older adults: A high-risk clinical population,” The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1083–1095, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. Roubenoff, “Sarcopenia: A major modifiable cause of frailty in the elderly,” The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 140–142, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. J. Jeoung and Y. C. Lee, “A Study of relationship between frailty and physical performance in elderly women,” Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 215–219, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. C. Howard, L. Ferrucci, K. Sun et al., “Oxidative protein damage is associated with poor grip strength among older women living in the community,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 17–20, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. E. Hubbard and K. W. Woodhouse, “Frailty, inflammation and the elderly,” Biogerontology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 635–641, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. Currie, “Healthy, wealthy, and wise: Socioeconomic status, poor health in childhood, and human capital development,” Journal of Economic Literature (JEL), vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 87–122, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. G. Kojima, “Frailty as a predictor of hospitalisation among community-dwelling older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 70, no. 7, pp. 722–729, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus