Table 2: Summary statistics (), Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of internal consistency (), and test-retest correlation coefficient for main study variables (overall scale and/or subscales).

Instrument
overall scale
Subscale 
(number of items, theoretical range)
Mean (SD)Median (IQR)RangeCronbach’s alpha coefficientTest-retest Pearson’s
(-value)

Modified version of Moral Distress Scale for Mental Health Services (M-MDS-MHS)Frequency, 32 items  
(theoretical range: 0–128)
37.8 (20.1)38 (24–51)1–103α = 0.962 ()
Intensity, 32 items  
(theoretical range: 0–128)
76.4 (31.1)71 (47–97)0–127α = 0.926 ()
Composite score, multiplicative 
(theoretical range: 0–512)
96.8 (62.9)91 (51–135)0–345

Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale17 items  
(theoretical range: 17–85)
31.1 (10.2)30 (24–37)17–61α = 0.925 ()

Jefferson Scale of Empathy20 items 
(theoretical range: 20–140)
105.9 (12.7)106 (100–115)69–134α = 0.777 ()

General Health Questionnaire-28
(GHQ-28)
Somatic symptoms, 7 items 
(theoretical range: 0–21)
5.8 (3.5)5 (3–8)0–18α = 0.855 ()
Anxiety/insomnia, 7 items 
(theoretical range: 0–21)
5.4 (3.9)5 (3–7)0–18α = 0.898 ()
Social dysfunction, 7 items 
(theoretical range: 0–21)
6.7 (2.6)7 (6-7)0–17α = 0.837 ()
Depression, 7 items 
(theoretical range: 0–21)
5.0 (2.2)1 (0–2)0–12α = 0.830 ()
Overall, 28 items  
(theoretical range: 0–84)
19.4 (10.0)17 (13–24)0–55