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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 1909258, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1909258
Review Article

Molecular Mechanisms and Treatment Strategies in Diabetic Nephropathy: New Avenues for Calcium Dobesilate—Free Radical Scavenger and Growth Factor Inhibition

1Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany
2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People’s Hospital, No. 11 Xizhimen South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100044, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Hermann Haller; ed.revonnah-hm@nnamreh.rellah

Received 13 March 2017; Accepted 21 June 2017; Published 26 September 2017

Academic Editor: Hans Baelde

Copyright © 2017 Hermann Haller et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most important microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus and is responsible for 40–50% of all cases of end stage renal disease. The therapeutic strategies in diabetic nephropathy need to be targeted towards the pathophysiology of the disease. The earlier these therapeutic strategies can bring about positive effects on vascular changes and prevent the vasculature in patients with diabetes from deteriorating, the better the renal function can be preserved. Studies evaluating anti-inflammatory and antioxidative strategies in diabetic nephropathy demonstrate the need and value of these novel treatment avenues. CaD is an established vasoactive and angioprotective drug that has shown a unique, multitarget mode of action in several experimental studies and in different animal models of diabetic microvascular complications. On the molecular level, CaD reduces oxidative stress and inhibits growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factors. Recent findings have demonstrated a strong rationale for its use in reducing urine albumin excretion rate and markers of inflammation as well as improving endothelial function. Its beneficial effects make it an attractive therapeutic compound especially in the early stages of the disease. These findings, although promising, need further confirmation in prospective clinical trials with CaD.