Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 2478461, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2478461
Research Article

Secular Changes of Adiposity in Czech Children Aged from 3 to 6 Years: Latent Obesity in Preschool Age

1Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Vinicna 7, 128 44 Prague, Czech Republic
2Department of Hygiene, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Ruska 87, 100 00 Prague, Czech Republic
3Obesity Management Centre, Institute of Endocrinology, Narodni Trida 8, 116 95 Prague, Czech Republic
4Faculty of Education, Charles University, M. D. Rettigove 4, 116 39 Prague, Czech Republic

Correspondence should be addressed to Petr Sedlak; zc.manzes@frp-ku-kaldes.rtep

Received 22 June 2017; Revised 23 September 2017; Accepted 11 October 2017; Published 15 November 2017

Academic Editor: Haichun Sun

Copyright © 2017 Petr Sedlak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

BMI, skinfold thickness, and circumferential measures were assessed in groups of normal healthy Czech boys () and girls () 3–6 years of age in the late 1950s and 1960s (sample C), in the 1990s (sample B), and in 2014–2016 (sample A). During these decades BMI has not changed significantly, and in selected groups (boys 3, 5, and 6, girls 3 and 6 years) it was most recently found to be significantly lower (). Subscapular, suprailiac, triceps, midthigh, and above patella skinfold thicknesses significantly increased in sample A as compared to sample C (). Comparison of the same skinfolds measured in the nineties (sample B) and more recently (sample A) showed similar increase of subcutaneous fat (). The increase of adiposity characterized by skinfolds occurring in spite of not markedly changed BMI indicates significant changes of body composition—latent (also hidden) obesity. The increase of adiposity was relatively greatest on the trunk ()—which is considered a marker of the greatest health risk. The decrease of femoral circumference () along with simultaneous increase of thigh skinfold () revealed the decrease of muscle mass in the lower extremity, obviously due to the reduction of weight-transferring physical activity.