BioMed Research International / 2017 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Insomnia and Its Temporal Association with Academic Performance among University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

Table 2

Risk factors of insomnia.

Variables (reference category) Bivariate regression model Multiple regression model
valueOR (95% CI) valueOR (95% CI)

Demographic data
Sex, female (male)0.510.9 (0.52, 1.39)
Field of study, humanity and social science (natural and computational science)0.072.4 (0.94, 6.42)
Batch, 1st year (5th year)0.231.4 (0.80, 2.55)0.420.7 (0.23, 1.85)
Ethnicity, Oromo (Amhara)0.710.9 (0.46, 1.69)
Religion, Protestant (Orthodox Christian)0.720.9 (0.40, 1.87)
Worshiping frequency, never (daily)0.102.6 (0.83, 8.08)0.053.7 (1.01, 13.57)
Marital status, divorce and married (single)0.0080.3 (0.13, 0.73)0.030.3 (0.10, 0.87)
Substance use habit and physical and mental health status
Cigarette smoking (no)0.190.5 (0.19, 1.38)0.980.9 (0.23, 4.16)
Khat chewing (no)0.090.5 (0.23, 1.13)0.190.45 (0.13, 1.51)
Drinking alcohol, less than once per month (never)0.031.7 (1.04, 2.91)0.691.2 (0.58, 2.26)
Headache (no)<0.0013.0 (1.92, 4.77)0.071.7 (0.96, 3.12)
Back pain (no)0.0032.6 (1.38, 4.82)0.681.2 (0.53, 2.63)
Fever (no)<0.0012.5 (1.54, 3.89)0.391.3 (0.72, 2.32)
Suicidal thought (no)0.0032.4 (1.35, 4.25)0.781.2 (0.32, 4.51)
Common mental disorder (no)<0.0014.4 (2.80, 6.77)<0.0013.5 (1.99, 5.99)
Sleep hygiene practice
Regular sleeping and waking time (no)0.530.9 (0.58, 1.32)
Sleep environment not good (physically) (yes)0.051.6 (0.99, 2.71)0.071.8 (0.95, 3.54)
No noise around sleeping place (yes)0.030.6 (0.41, 0.95)0.250.7 (0.42, 1.26)
Attended night party (no)0.281.5 (0.73, 2.90)
No stress related to exam, assignment, test (yes)0.0010.5 (0.31, 0.72)0.310.8 (0.44, 1.30)
Exercise within 15 minutes of sleeping (no)0.721.1 (0.60, 2.08)
Exercise before 3 hours of sleeping (no)0.201.5 (0.82, 2.64)0.181.6 (0.80, 3.28)
No nap during the afternoon (yes)0.941.0 (0.64, 1.51)
Drink stimulants (coffee and tea) during nighttime (no)0.781.1 (0.69, 1.64)
Eat heavy meal close to sleeping (no)0.211.4 (0.83, 2.40)0.591.2 (0.62, 2.30)
Nighttime ritual (no)0.451.2 (0.76, 1.83)
Using the bed only for sleeping purpose (no)0.541.1 (0.75, 1.74)
No eating, drinking, reading, or watching TV on bed (yes)0.320.8 (0.52, 1.23)

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