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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 2978718, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2978718
Research Article

Tracking the Origin and Deciphering the Phylogenetic Relationship of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in Ecuador

1Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Tëcnica de Manabí, Ave Urbina y Che Guevara, Portoviejo, Manabí, Ecuador
2Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Agencia Ecuatoriana de Aseguramiento de Calidad del Agro (Agrocalidad), Av. Interoceánica, Km. 14.5, La Granja MAGAP, Tumbaco, Pichincha, Ecuador
3Laboratorio de Epidemiologia y Bioestadistica Veterinária, Universidad de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
4Dalhousie Medicine New Brunswick (DMNB), Saint John, NB, Canada E2L 4L5

Correspondence should be addressed to Lester J. Pérez; moc.liamg@eusojretsel

Received 28 July 2017; Revised 12 October 2017; Accepted 29 October 2017; Published 12 December 2017

Academic Editor: Yu-Chang Tyan

Copyright © 2017 Maritza Barrera et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In 2010, new Chinese strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), clinically more severe than the classical strains, emerged. These strains were spread to United States in 2013 through an intercontinental transmission from China with further spreading across the world, evidencing the emergent nature of these strains. In the present study, an analysis of PEDV field sequences from Ecuador was conducted by comparing all the PEDV S gene sequences available in the GenBank database. Phylogenetic comparisons and Bayesian phylogeographic inference based on complete S gene sequences were also conducted to track the origin and putative route of PEDV. The sequence from the PED-outbreak in Ecuador was grouped into the clade II of PEDV genogroup 2a together with other sequences of isolates from Mexico, Canada, and United States. The phylogeographic study revealed the emergence of the Chinese PEDV strains, followed by spreading to US in 2013, from US to Korea, and later the introduction of PEDV to Canada, Mexico, and Ecuador directly from the US. The sources of imports of live swine in Ecuador in 2014 were mainly from Chile and US. Thus, this movement of pigs is suggested as the main way for introducing PEDV to Ecuador.