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BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 3205895, 5 pages
Research Article

Ultrasound in Infertility Setting: Optimal Strategy to Evaluate the Assessment of Tubal Patency

1Reproductive Unit, Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco, Hospital “L. Sacco”, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
2Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
3Department of Radiology, Cardarelli Hospital, Naples, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Valeria Savasi; ti.iminu@isavas.airelav

Received 28 April 2017; Accepted 19 November 2017; Published 11 December 2017

Academic Editor: Christian Schwentner

Copyright © 2017 Luca Mandia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Tubal patency is a key element in women who are undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (ART), in order to attempt or exclude intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. Amongst the different procedures that can be used, without resorting to laparoscopy that remains the gold standard, hystero-salpingo-contrast sonography (HyCoSy) is an acceptable, time-efficient, and well tolerated option; it can be performed with administration of saline and air simultaneously or alternately (air/saline-HyCoSy), or with some other contrast agents, like SonoVue (sulfur hexafluoride microbubbles). In this paper, we describe two different studies: in the first one, our aim is to compare the efficiency of air/saline-HyCoSy with HyCoSy performed with contrast media (SonoVue), considering hysterosalpingography (HSG) and laparoscopy (LPS) as reference tests; in the second one, we estimate the pregnancy rate of a cohort of infertile women selected to undergo IUI cycles after tubal bilateral patency demonstration with air/saline-HyCoSy, to understand if this technique can be used as an efficient screening procedure in a Reproductive Unit.