Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 3257235, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3257235
Review Article

The Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a Source of Biomarkers to Enhance Efficiency of Orthodontic and Functional Treatment of Growing Patients

1Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
2Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Mariana Caires Sobral de Aguiar; moc.liamtoh@larbosciram

Received 3 November 2016; Revised 18 December 2016; Accepted 4 January 2017; Published 23 January 2017

Academic Editor: Enita Nakaš

Copyright © 2017 Mariana Caires Sobral de Aguiar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Kapoor, O. P. R. Kharbanda, N. Monga, R. Miglani, and S. Kapila, “Effect of orthodontic forces on cytokine and receptor levels in gingival crevicular fluid: a systematic review,” Progress in Orthodontics, vol. 15, article 65, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. C. Alfano, “The origin of gingival fluid,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 127–136, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. M. Alhadlaq and S. Patil, “Biomarkers of orthodontic tooth movement in gingival crevicular fluid: a systematic review,” The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 578–587, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. A. J. Delima and T. E. Van Dyke, “Origin and function of the cellular components in gingival crevice fluid,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 31, pp. 55–76, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. I. B. Lamster, “The host response in gingival crevicular fluid: potential applications in periodontitis clinical trials,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 1117–1123, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. A. McCulloch, “Host enzymes in gingival crevicular fluid as diagnostic indicators of periodontitis,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 497–506, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y. Ren, J. C. Maltha, M. A. Van't Hof, J. W. Von Den Hoff, A. M. Kuijpers-Jagtman, and D. Zhang, “Cytokine levels in crevicular fluid are less responsive to orthodontic force in adults than in juveniles,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 757–762, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Ren, H. Hazemeijer, B. de Haan, N. Qu, and P. de Vos, “Cytokine profiles in crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement of short and long durations,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 453–458, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. C. Page and H. E. Schroeder, “Pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease: a summary of current work,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 235–249, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. S. Socransky and A. D. Haffajee, “Periodontal microbial ecology,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 38, pp. 135–187, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. G. Loos and S. Tjoa, “Host-derived diagnostic markers for periodontitis: do they exist in gingival crevice fluid?” Periodontology 2000, vol. 39, pp. 53–72, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. M. Golub and I. Kleinberg, “Gingival crevicular fluid: a new diagnostic aid in managing the periodontal patient,” ORAL SCI.REV., vol. 8, pp. 49–61, 1976. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. Perinetti, L. Franchi, A. Castaldo, and L. Contardo, “Gingival crevicular fluid protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity in relation to pubertal growth phase,” Angle Orthodontist, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 1047–1052, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. Perinetti, L. Contardo, and T. Baccetti, “Gingival crevicular fluid as a source of biomarkers of patient responsiveness to orthodontic treatment,” in Taking Advantage of Emerging Technologies in Clinical Practice, J. A. McNamara, N. Hatch, and S. D. Kapila, Eds., pp. 197–222, Center for Human Growth and Development, The University of Michigan. Needham Press, Ann Arbor, Mich, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  15. G. S. Griffiths, “Formation, collection and significance of gingival crevice fluid,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 31, pp. 32–42, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Perinetti, B. Di Leonardo, R. Di Lenarda, and L. Contardo, “Repeatability of gingival crevicular fluid collection and quantification, as determined through its alkaline phosphatase activity: implications for diagnostic use,” Journal of Periodontal Research, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 98–104, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Petrovic, J. Stutzmann, and J. Lavergne, “Mechanism of craniofacial growth and modus operandi of functional appliances: a cell-level and cybernetic approach to orthodontic decision making,” in Craniofacial Growth Theory and Orthodontic Treatment, D. S. Carlson, Ed., Monograph 23 Craniofacial Growth Series, pp. 13–74, Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich, USA, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  18. T. Baccetti, L. Franchi, and J. A. McNamara Jr., “The Cervical Vertebral Maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of optimal treatment timing in dentofacial orthopedics,” Seminars in Orthodontics, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 119–129, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. Cozza, T. Baccetti, L. Franchi, L. De Toffol, and J. A. McNamara Jr., “Mandibular changes produced by functional appliances in Class II malocclusion: a systematic review,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 599.e1–599.e12, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Baccetti, L. Franchi, and J. A. McNamara Jr., “An improved version of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of mandibular growth,” Angle Orthodontist, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 316–323, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. Franchi, T. Baccetti, and J. A. McNamara Jr., “Mandibular growth as related to cervical vertebral maturation and body height,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 335–340, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Rainey, G. Burnside, and J. E. Harrison, “Reliability of cervical vertebral maturation staging,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 98–104, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. A. Björk and S. Helm, “Prediction of the age of maximum puberal growth in body height,” Angle Orthodontist, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 134–143, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. W. W. Greulich and S. I. Pyle, Radiographic Atlas of Skeletal Development of the Hand and Wrist, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif, USA, 2nd edition, 1959.
  25. L. Franchi, T. Baccetti, L. De Toffol, A. Polimeni, and P. Cozza, “Phases of the dentition for the assessment of skeletal maturity: a diagnostic performance study,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 395–400, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. Baccetti, L. Franchi, L. De Toffol, B. Ghiozzi, and P. Cozza, “The diagnostic performance of chronologic age in the assessment of skeletal maturity,” Progress in Orthodontics, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 176–188, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. S. Fishman, “Chronological versus skeletal age, an evaluation of craniofacial growth,” Angle Orthodontist, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 181–189, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. Perinetti, L. Contardo, P. Gabrieli, T. Baccetti, and R. Di Lenarda, “Diagnostic performance of dental maturity for identification of skeletal maturation phase,” European Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 487–492, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Trakiniene, D. Smailiene, and A. Kučiauskiene, “Evaluation of skeletal maturity using maxillary canine, mandibular second and third molar calcification stages,” European Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 398–403, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Perinetti, T. Baccetti, B. Di Leonardo, R. Di Lenarda, and L. Contardo, “Dentition phase and chronological age in relation to gingival crevicular fluid alkaline phosphatase activity in growing subjects,” Progress in Orthodontics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 100–106, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. P. Beit, T. Peltomäki, M. Schätzle, L. Signorelli, and R. Patcas, “Evaluating the agreement of skeletal age assessment based on hand-wrist and cervical vertebrae radiography,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 144, no. 6, pp. 838–847, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. Perinetti and L. Contardo, “Gingival crevicular fluid alkaline phosphatase activity in relation to pubertal growth spurt and dental maturation: a multiple regression study,” South European Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 6–11, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  33. G. Perinetti, T. Baccetti, L. Contardo, and R. Di Lenarda, “Gingival crevicular fluid alkaline phosphatase activity as a non-invasive biomarker of skeletal maturation,” Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 44–50, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. Szulc, E. Seeman, and P. D. Delmas, “Biochemical measurements of bone turnover in children and adolescents,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 281–294, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. Perinetti and L. Contardo, “Dental maturation is not a reliable indicator of the pubertal growth spurt,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 4–6, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. S. Singh, N. Sandhu, T. Puri, R. Gulati, R. Kashyap, and N. Marwah, “A study of correlation of various growth indicators with chronological age,” International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 190–195, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. V. Krishnan and Z. Davidovitch, “Cellular, molecular, and tissue-level reactions to orthodontic force,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 129, no. 4, pp. 469.e1–469.e32, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. F. d'Apuzzo, S. Cappabianca, D. Ciavarella, A. Monsurrò, A. Silvestrini-Biavati, and L. Perillo, “Biomarkers of periodontal tissue remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement in mice and men: overview and clinical relevance,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, Article ID 105873, 8 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. G. Gupta, “Gingival crevicular fluid as a periodontal diagnostic indicator- II: inflammatory mediators, host-response modifiers and chair side diagnostic aids,” Journal of Medicine and Life, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 7–13, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. G. S. Griffiths, A. M. Moulson, A. Petrie, and I. T. James, “Evaluation of osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks of bone collagen as markers of bone turnover in gingival crevicular fluid during different stages of orthodontic treatment,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 492–498, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Tzannetou, S. Efstratiadis, O. Nicolay, J. Grbic, and I. Lamster, “Comparison of levels of inflammatory mediators IL-1β and βG in gingival crevicular fluid from molars, premolars, and incisors during rapid palatal expansion,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 133, no. 5, pp. 699–707, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Uematsu, M. Mogi, and T. Deguchi, “Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, epidermal growth factor, and β2-microglobulin levels are elevated in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 562–567, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Yamaguchi, “RANK/RANKL/OPG during orthodontic tooth movement,” Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 113–119, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. Kawasaki, T. Takahashi, M. Yamaguchi, and K. Kasai, “Effects of aging on RANKL and OPG levels in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement,” Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 137–142, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. D. Delmas, “Clinical use of biochemical markers of bone remodeling in osteoporosis,” Bone, vol. 13, supplement 1, pp. S17–S21, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. R. Farley, S. L. Hall, C. Ritchie, S. Herring, C. Orcutt, and B. E. Miller, “Quantitation of skeletal alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activity in canine serum,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 779–792, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Insoft, G. J. King, and S. D. Keeling, “The measurement of acid and alkaline phosphatase in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 287–296, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. G. Perinetti, M. Paolantonio, M. D'Attilio et al., “Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 548–556, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. Perinetti, F. D'Apuzzo, L. Contardo, J. Primozic, K. Rupel, and L. Perillo, “Gingival crevicular fluid alkaline phosphate activity during the retention phase of maxillary expansion in prepubertal subjects: a split-mouth longitudinal study,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 90–96, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. G. Perinetti, M. Paolantonio, E. Serra et al., “Longitudinal monitoring of subgingival colonization by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and crevicular alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities around orthodontically treated teeth,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 60–67, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. H. Al Swafeeri, W. Elkenany, M. Mowafy, and M. Helmy, “Crevicular alkaline phosphatase activity during the application of two patterns of orthodontic forces,” Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 5–13, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. W. G. Grieve III, G. K. Johnson, R. N. Moore, R. A. Reinhardt, and L. M. DuBois, “Prostaglandin E (PGE) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels in gingival crevicular fluid during human orthodontic tooth movement,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 369–374, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  53. P. C. Chibebe, N. Starobinas, and D. Pallos, “Juveniles versus adults: differences in PGE2 levels in the gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement,” Brazilian Oral Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 108–113, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. G. Başaran, T. Özer, F. A. Kaya, A. Kaplan, and O. Hamamci, “Interleukine-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in the human gingival sulcus during orthodontic treatment,” Angle Orthodontist, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 830–836, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. J. Lowney, L. A. Norton, D. M. Shafer, and E. F. Rossomando, “Orthodontic forces increase tumor necrosis factor α in the human gingival sulcus,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 519–524, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. P. Robins, “Biochemical markers for assessing skeletal growth,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 48, supplement 1, pp. S199–S209, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. Blumsohn, R. A. Hannon, R. Wrate et al., “Biochemical markers of bone turnover in girls during puberty,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 663–670, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. L. C. Hofbauer and A. E. Heufelder, “Role of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin in bone cell biology,” Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 79, no. 5-6, pp. 243–253, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. Y. Nishijima, M. Yamaguchi, T. Kojima, N. Aihara, R. Nakajima, and K. Kasai, “Levels of RANKL and opg in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement and effect of compression force on releases from periodontal ligament cells in vitro,” Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 63–70, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. Zhang and Y. Ren, “Comparison of GCF biochemical components changes during orthodontic tooth movement between children and adults,” Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 219–221, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Grant, J. Wilson, P. Rock, and I. Chapple, “Induction of cytokines, MMP9, TIMPs, RANKL and OPG during orthodontic tooth movement,” European Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 644–651, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. G. Cantarella, R. Cantarella, M. Caltabiano, N. Risuglia, R. Bernardini, and R. Leonardi, “Levels of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2 in human gingival crevicular fluid during initial tooth movement,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 130, no. 5, pp. 568.e11–568.e16, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. M. Bildt, M. Bloemen, A. M. Kuijpers-Jagtman, and J. W. Von Den Hoff, “Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement,” European Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 529–535, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus