Table 1: Standard Gibbs free energy change when using glucose as fermentation substrate and bacteria for hydrolysis, acid production, and fermentation.

Reaction equation (pH = 7, = 298.15 K) (kJ/mol)

C6H12O6 + 4H2O + 2NAD+ 2CH3COO + + 2NADH + 2H2 + 6H+>0
C6H12O6 + 2NADH 2CH3CH2COO + 2H2O + 2NAD+>0
C6H12O6 + 4H2O 2CH3COO + + 4H2 + 4H+>0
C6H12O6 + 2H2O CH3CH2CH2COO + + 2H2 + 3H+>0
C6H12O6 + 2H2O + 2NADH 2CH3CH2OH + + 2NAD+ + 2H2>0
C6H12O6 2CH3CHOHCOO + 2H+>0