Figure 1: Trichomonas vaginalis T016 strain induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human cervical mucosal epithelial SiHa cells, in parasite-burden-dependent manner. SiHa cells were treated with live T. vaginalis (multiplicity of infections 1 and 5) and T. vaginalis excretory/secretory products (ESP, 20 and 100 μg/mL) at indicated time points. (a and b) Intracellular ROS production was detected by measurement of dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence. Intracellular ROS levels were significantly increased in a T. vaginalis parasite-burden-dependent manner. (c and d) Mitochondrial ROS production was detected by MitoSOX reagent. Mitochondrial ROS production was significantly increased in parasite-burden- and ESP concentration-dependent manner. The experiment was repeated three times with similar results. Scale bars: 100 μm; , .